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Microbial Pathogenesis

Ying Xia, Songkang Qin, Yaoqin Shen
In this study, we isolated four Weissella confusa strains from the healthy horse feces to test their potential as equine probiotics. The identification and characteristics of these isolates were determined as per standard methods. Resistance and susceptibility of the isolated strains were tested to low pHs, different heat treatments, commonly used antibiotics and against the pathogenic strains of Salmonella, Pasteurella, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. After 3 h cultural in different PH medium, the 4 strains still had a certain amount of survival above pH 3...
April 19, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Mohammad Doosti, Mohammadreza Nassiri, Khadijeh Nasiri, Mojtaba Tahmoorespur, Saeed Zibaee
Previous studies on vaccine development against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus reported that application of the inactivated vaccines for FMD virus is not completely effective. Novel vaccinations based on immune-dominant epitopes showed they induced immune responses. In addition, for better and safer immunization, access to of efficient adjuvants against FMD virus seems to be critical. In this study, we produced epitope recombinant vaccines from the VP1 protein of the FMD virus for serotype O of Iran that conjugated with Fc Immunoglobulin (FcIgG) and Interleukin-2 (IL-2)...
April 17, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Mehdi Ajorloo, Ashkan Alamdary, Hoorieh Soleimanjahi, Abdellah El Boulani, Sayyad Khanizadeh, Hadi Razavi Nikoo
BACKGROUND: Various promising procedures have been used to improve the potency of DNA vaccines for the treatment of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infections. Interleukin-12 (IL12) is a powerful adjuvant that can contribute to T cell-mediated protection against many pathogens, specifically viruses. Considering the important role of T cell-mediated immunity in tumor clearance, the induction of these responses can help control the progression of tumors in animal models. We have demonstrated that the co-administration of codon-optimized E7 (uE7) gene of HPV16 with interleukin-12 is effective in the development of antitumor responses...
April 17, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ahmad Nasser, Parham Jazireian, Hossein Safari, Mahmoud Alizade-Sani, Mohammad Reza Pourmand, Taher Azimi
Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes many infections and diseases. This pathogen can cause many types of infections such as impetigo, toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST1), pneumonia, endocarditis, and autoimmune diseases like lupus erythematosus and can infect other healthy individuals. In the pathogenic process, colonization is a main risk factor for invasive diseases. Various factors including the cell wall-associated factors and receptors of the epithelial cells facilitate adhesion and colonization of this pathogen...
April 16, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Fatima Nehal, Mouna Sahnoun, Slim Smaoui, Bassem Jaouadi, Samir Bejar, Sbaihia Mohammed
A new exopolysaccharide (EPS) was produced by the Lactococcus lactis F-mou strain (LT898177.1) isolated from the Sahrawi camel milk in the Bir-Naam region, Algeria. The most influential production parameters were screened by the Plackett-Burman design for enhancing EPS yield utilizing the Mech-Degla juice as a low-cost raw material. An optimum condition of a 0.49 of inoculum size, a 100 rpm of agitation rate, and a 12 h of incubation period resulted in a 301 g/L. This yield was 47 times higher than the one attained before the application of the Box-Behnken Design...
April 16, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Lin Chen, Xin Zhang, Xiaying Peng, Yang Yang, Hua Yu
The present study was aimed to synthesize and evaluate tetrazoles of baicalin against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the rat model. Among the seven synthesized baicalin tetrazoles, one with trifloromethyl group in the aromatic ring was found to be most potent during the initial study. The mechanism of preventive effect of most potent compound 4c against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was investigated in detail. The compound 4c decreased the parasitic load by almost 99% in the rats. It significantly (P < 0...
April 16, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Samira Shahriyari Rad, Ali Mohamadi Sani, Sharareh Mohseni
The synthesis of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles is an expanding research area due to the potential applications in the development of novel technologies. In the present study, a simple and eco-friendly synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using leaf extract of Mentha pulegium L. has been used. The biosynthesized ZnO NPs were characterized various techniques such as UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR)...
April 16, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Shreya Basu, Mandira Mukherjee
Incidence of high fluoroquinolone resistance has been rising rapidly worldwide. Resistance against fluoroquinolones can be either chromosomal or plasmid mediated. Plasmid mediated quinolone resistant(PMQR) genes impart low level of resistance against fluoroquinolones but provides favorable background for selection of additional chromosomally encoded resistance mechanisms. In the natural habitat, conjugal transfer of PMQR genes provides a vehicle for dissemination of fluoroquinolone resistance. Our study indicated successful transmission of PMQR determinants(aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, oqxB) from ciprofloxacin resistant clinical uropathogenic E...
April 15, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Yaping Wang, Aoyun Li, Juanjuan Liu, Khalid Mehmood, Basang Wangdui, Hongmei Shi, Xiaolin Luo, Hui Zhang, Jiakui Li
Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) are well-known food-borne pathogens that cause animal intestinal diseases. Lactobacillus is believed to inhibit intestinal pathogens and maintain a healthy gut microbiota. This study aimed to investigate the effects of pre-supplementation of Lactobacillus from yaks (4500m) to prevent the clinical symptoms and the improvement of the disordered flora caused by E. coli infection. Forty healthy mice were randomized to four study groups (n = 10); Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (LP1), Lactobacillus johnsonii (LJ1), blank control, and control groups...
April 15, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ke Song, Zong-Mei Wu, Lu-Yuan Peng, Chun-Lei Zhang, Ben-Dong Fu, Peng-Fei Yi, Hai-Qing Shen
BACKGROUND: Canine distemper virus (CDV) can cause a highly contagious disease to canid. However, how CDV affects peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) remains unclear. METHODS: In this study, CDV infected PBL was cultured to investigate the effect of CDV on the differentiation of lymphocytes and the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in PBL. RESULTS: The results showed that CDV changed the phenotype of lymphocytes and increased the percentage of CD4+ CD8+ T cells...
April 15, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Miroslava Kačániová, Alīna Klūga, Attila Kántor, Juraj Medo, Jana Žiarovská, Czeslaw Puchalski, Margarita Terentjeva
Effective and reliable methods of identification of Pseudomonas spp. are important for characterization of microorganisms. The aim of present study was to compare identification conducted with MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper and 16S rDNA sequencing of Pseudomonas species isolated from fish. Altogether, 13 different Pseudomonas species were isolated from freshwater fish. Phylogenetic analysis showed clear taxonomic placement only for 13 out of 15 Pseudomonas isolates. Accordance of identification method was found only in 6 of 15 isolates...
April 15, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Xiang Tong, Qunfang Wan, Zhenzhen Li, Sitong Liu, Jizhen Huang, Man Wu, Hong Fan
In recent years, many studies have demonstrated that the MBL-2 gene polymorphisms may be associated with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) susceptibility. Moreover, some studies have shown that serum MBL levels were influenced by the MBL-2 gene polymorphisms and that it plays an important role in tuberculosis infection. However, the results of these studies were inconsistent and underpowered. The current meta-analysis and systematic review aimed to evaluate the association between the MBL-2 gene polymorphisms and serum MBL levels with PTB...
April 15, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Chengchao Ding, Qing Liu, Jie Li, Junfei Ma, Shuying Wang, Qingli Dong, Dongpo Xu, Jingxuan Qiu, Xiang Wang
Live attenuated bacteria is a promising candidate vector for the delivery of vaccines in clinic trials. In the field of aquaculture industry, live vector vaccine also could provide long-term and effective protection against fish bacterial diseases. In our previous work, we demonstrated attenuated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) had the potential to be an aquaculture vaccine vector in cellular level and zebrafish model. To further investigate the potential application of attenuated Lm in aquaculture vaccines, the outer membrane protein K (OmpK) from Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V...
April 12, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Zhang Ying, Li Jiaojiao, Rong Qianyu, Xu Zheng, Ding Yunfei, Cao Qizhi, Ji Xiaofei, Zhao Huilin, Yulong Wu, Li Boqing
C1q, as a LAIR-1 ligand, maintains monocytes quiescence and possess immunosuppressive properties. To understand the roles and molecular mechanisms, C1q mediated inflammation cytokines and several pivotal proteins in THP-1 cells after H. pylori infection were detected. The results showed that the expression of IL-8, IL-10, LAIR-1, phosphorylated/total JNK, phosphorylated/total p38-MAPK, phosphorylated/total AKT and phosphorylated/total NF-κB were up-regulated significantly in THP-1 cells after H. pylori infection...
April 12, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Emmanuel Konadu Sarkodie, Muhammad Naveed, Ali Asghar Mirjat, Muhammad Saeed, Shuxin Zhou, Mirza Muhammad Faran Ashraf Baig, Sarah Ama Baidoo, Awais Ullah Ihsan, Kalyan Bikram Shah, Abdullahi Ayuba, Daniel Chikere Ali, Weihua Chu
Stress hormones have been recently suggested to influence the pathogenicity of bacteria significantly. Stress has been identified as part of the factors causing an outbreak of infections in the aquaculture industry. The most studied neuroendocrine hormonal family from a microbial endocrinology perspective is the catecholamine comprising of norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. It is of importance that catecholamine affects the growth and virulence of bacteria. The influence of stress on bacterial infections is attributed to the ability of catecholamines to suppress the immune system as the mode of action for increased bacterial growth...
April 11, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Xuhua Ran, Xiang-Zhu Meng, Hong-Li Geng, Chunlong Chang, Xiaohong Chen, Xiaobo Wen, Hongbo Ni
Pasteurella multocida (PM) causes a varity of clinical manifestation in domestic animals, even acute death. Vaccination is among effective strategy to prevent and control PM-related diseases. Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty bacterial envelopes, which sustain subtle antigenic comformation in bacterial outer-membrane and exhibit higher efficacy compared to inactivated vaccines. Here, a BG vaccine generated from the porcine PM reference strain CVCC446 (serotype B:2) was prepared upon lysis by E protein of bacteriophage PhiX174, and the safety and immunogenicity were evaluated its in a mouse model...
April 10, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Lei Liu, Shangen Zheng
Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is transmitted primarily by infected fleas in nature. Y. pestis can produce biofilms that block flea's proventriculus and promote flea-borne transmission. Transcriptional regulation of Y. pestis biofilm formation plays an important role in the response to complex changes in environments, including temperature, pH, oxidative stress, and restrictive nutrition conditions, and contributes to Y. pestis growth, reproduction, transmission, and pathogenesis. A set of transcriptional regulators involved in Y...
April 10, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Selpha Opisa, Hannalene du Plessis, Komivi S Akutse, KomiK M Fiaboe, Sunday Ekesi
The compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE 30 which was proved to be pathogenic to adult Spoladea recurvalis, and phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) floral attractant for lepidopteran moths, was investigated under laboratory and field conditions through spatial and temporal separations. Horizontal transmission of M. anisopliae ICIPE 30 between adult S. recurvalis and the number of conidia picked up by a single moth from the autoinoculation device were also determined under laboratory tests...
April 10, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Dušan Ušjak, Branka Ivković, Dragana D Božić, Lidija Bošković, Marina Milenković
Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequent multiresistant nosocomial pathogens that cause wound and pulmonary infections in hospitalized patients. As being increasingly resistant to most clinically available antibiotics, there is a constant need for exploration of new substances that could kill them or inhibit their growth, or alternatively inhibit some of their essential virulence factors. Chalcones are chemical compounds with well-documented antimicrobial potential. The aim of this study was to examine effectiveness of four newly-synthesized chalcones against the multiresistant clinical strains of A...
April 10, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Mona A Elhosary, Mohammed Bahey-El-Din, Amany AbdelBary, Nadia El Guink, Hamida M Aboushleib
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a notorious pathogen with increasing multi-drug resistance. This situation makes it urgent to develop a prophylactic vaccine against this pathogen. Different virulence factors play a crucial role in P. aeruginosa infection. This study focused on evaluation of the iron acquisition protein HitA as a potential vaccine candidate against P. aeruginosa in a murine infection model. The Recombinant ferric iron-binding periplasmic protein HitA was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and was purified using metal affinity chromatography...
April 9, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
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