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Journal of Pineal Research

Shadab A Rahman, Carolina Bibbo, James Olcese, Charles A Czeisler, Julian N Robinson, Elizabeth B Klerman
In humans, circulating levels of the hormone melatonin and the initiation of spontaneous labor are both higher at night than during the day. Since activation of uterine melatonin receptors can stimulate human in vitro uterine contractions and these receptors are only expressed on the uterine tissue of women in labor, we hypothesized that circulating melatonin concentrations would affect uterine contractions in vivo. We evaluated the impact of light-induced modulation of melatonin secretion on uterine contractions in women during late third-trimester (~36-39 weeks) of pregnancy in two inpatient protocols...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Pineal Research
Walter Balduini, Michael D Weiss, Silvia Carloni, Marco Rocchi, Livia Sura, Candace Rossignol, Mariangela Longini, Francesco Bazzini, Serafina Perrone, Deborah Ott, Rajan Wadhawan, Giuseppe Buonocore
INTRODUCTION: Neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) undergoing hypothermia may benefit from adjunctive therapy with melatonin. However, melatonin safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and dosage in this sensitive population is still unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study assessed the PK and safety of melatonin enteral administration to neonates with HIE undergoing hypothermia. Melatonin was infused at 0.5 mg/kg in five neonates with HIE undergoing hypothermia...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Pineal Research
Tomofumi Misaka, Akiomi Yoshihisa, Tetsuro Yokokawa, Takamasa Sato, Masayoshi Oikawa, Atsushi Kobayashi, Takayoshi Yamaki, Koichi Sugimoto, Hiroyuki Kunii, Kazuhiko Nakazato, Yasuchika Takeishi
BACKGROUND: Melatonin is a multifunctional indolamine, and has a cardioprotective role in a variety of cardiovascular processes via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, anti-thrombotic and anti-lipemic effects. It has been reported that lower levels of circulating melatonin are significantly associated with a higher risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and later cardiac remodeling. However, levels of melatonin in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and associations between melatonin levels and cardiac function remain unclear...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Pineal Research
Abhishek S Prayag, Raymond P Najjar, Claude Gronfier
INTRODUCTION: Light elicits a range of non-visual responses in humans. Driven predominantly by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), but also by rods and/or cones, these responses include melatonin suppression. A sigmoidal relationship has been established between melatonin suppression and light intensity, however photoreceptoral involvement remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we first modelled the relationships between alpha-opic illuminances and melatonin suppression using an extensive dataset by Brainard and colleagues...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Pineal Research
Bohan Rong, Ruonan Feng, Chenlong Liu, Qiong Wu, Chao Sun
Adipocyte-derived exosomes (Exos) serve as bioinformation-containing messengers in cell-to-cell communications, and numerous reports demonstrate that resistin, an adipokine, is strongly associated with hepatic steatosis and other fatty liver diseases, suggesting that adipose dysfunction-generated altered pattern of exosomal cytokines may contribute to shaping the physiological activities in liver. Admittedly, melatonin-mediated positive effects on various tissues/organs have been respectively reported, but regulatory mechanisms of melatonin on the crosstalk between adipose tissue and liver have been investigated rarely...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Pineal Research
Zheng Li, Xingye Li, Jiaqi Bi, Matthew T V Chan, William Ka Kei Wu, Jianxiong Shen
Congenital spinal deformities are a result of defective somitogenesis and are associated with vitamin A deficiency (VAD). However, the molecular mechanisms of VAD-associated congenital spinal deformities remain largely unknown. Increasing number of studies suggested that microRNAs and melatonin played important roles in the developemnt of congenital spinal deformities. In this study, we showed that the whole-embryo expression of miR-363 was upregulated in VAD rats. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-363 inhibited the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of primary cultured NSCs, accompanied by downregulation of Notch1...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Pineal Research
Dongying Lv, Tan Tan, Tianqi Zhu, Jing Wang, Suhong Zhang, Lu Zhang, Xiaoxiang Hu, Guoshi Liu, Yiming Xing
Melatonin is a natural molecule produced in the pineal gland and other tissues. It participates in numerous biological activities including the regulation of reproduction. However, the mechanism by which melatonin affects mammalian female reproductive performance is not fully investigated. In the present study, it was observed that melatonin positively regulated the level of leptin in female mouse and pig. To understand the potential association between melatonin and leptin on the female reproductive activities, the melatonin receptor1 MT1 knockout (MT1-/- ) mouse and leptin knockout (Leptin-/- ) pig were created...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Pineal Research
Chien-Chung Huang, Chen-Hsiang Chiou, Shan-Chi Liu, Sung-Lin Hu, Chen-Ming Su, Chun-Hao Tsai, Chih-Hsin Tang
The hormone melatonin has many properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Melatonin has been demonstrated to be beneficial in several inflammatory autoimmune diseases, but its effects in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain controversial. We sought to determine how melatonin regulates inflammation in RA. We found that melatonin dose-dependently inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β expression through the PI3K/AKT, ERK and NF-κB signaling pathways...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Pineal Research
Gi-Jun Sung, Sung-Hak Kim, Sungmin Kwak, Seung-Ho Park, Ji-Hye Song, Ji-Hoon Jung, Hyunhee Kim, Kyung-Chul Choi
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant glioma and most lethal form of human brain cancer1 . GBM is also one of the most expensive and difficult cancers to treat by the surgical resection, local radiotherapy and temozolomide (TMZ) and still remains an incurable disease. Oncomine platform analysis and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) show that the expression of transcription factor EB (TFEB) was significantly increased in GBMs and in GBM patients above stage IV. TFEB requires the oligomerization and localization to regulate transcription in the nucleus...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Pineal Research
Jia-Wei Lv, Zi-Qi Zheng, Zi-Xian Wang, Guan-Qun Zhou, Lei Chen, Yan-Ping Mao, Ai-Hua Lin, Russel J Reiter, Jun Ma, Yu-Pei Chen, Ying Sun
We performed comprehensive genomic analyses of the melatonergic system within the tumor microenvironment and their clinical relevance across a broad spectrum of solid tumors. RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) of 14 solid tumors representing 6,658 human samples were analyzed. The tumor melatonergic system was characterised by the rates of melatonin synthesis and metabolism using a two-gene expression model (melatonin synthesis/metabolism index). We calculated three indexes according to different melatonin metabolism isoenzymes (Index-I [ASMT:CYP1A1], Index-II [ASMT:CYP1A2], and Index-III [ASMT:CYP1B1])...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Pineal Research
Florent Gobert, Jacques Luauté, Véronique Raverot, François Cotton, Frédéric Dailler, Bruno Claustrat, Fabien Perrin, Claude Gronfier
Circadian rhythmicity (CR) is involved in the regulation of all integrated functions, from sleep-wake cycle regulation to metabolic function, mood and cognition. However, the interdependence of CR, cognition and consciousness has been poorly addressed. To clarify the state of CR in coma and to determine the chronological relationship between its recovery and consciousness after brain lesions, we conducted a longitudinal observational study investigating how the state of CR was chronologically related with the recovery of behavioural wakefulness, cognition and/or awareness...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Pineal Research
Sara Muñiz-Calvo, Ricardo Bisquert, Edwin Fernández-Cruz, María Carmen García-Parrilla, José Manuel Guillamón
Melatonin (Mel), originally considered a neurohormone, has been detected in beverages and food-fermented products in which yeast metabolism is highly important. This indolamine is synthesized from serotonin, with L-tryptophan being the initial substrate of both. Regarding Mel metabolism, the biosynthetic pathway in mammals consists in four-step reactions. However, six genes are implicated in the synthesis of Mel in plants, which suggest the presence of many pathways. The aim of this study is to provide new empirical data on the production of Mel and other indole-related compounds in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Pineal Research
Jingtao Qiu, Jinglin Zhang, Yewen Zhou, Xin Li, Hongjiao Li, Jiali Liu, Kemian Gou, Jianguo Zhao, Sheng Cui
MicroRNAs, including microRNA-7 (miR-7), are important modulators of numerous gene expressions and the related biological processes. Melatonin is a key hormone regulating daily and seasonal rhythms, in which a variety of positive and negative regulatory factors, such as norepinephrine (NE) and leptin, are involved. However, the interactions among these factors and the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The aims of the present study were to identify the functions and the related mechanisms of miR-7 in regulating melatonin synthesis and secretion through in vitro and in vivo experiments in pineal gland of pigs, which is an important animal model for agricultural and biomedical studies...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Pineal Research
Antje Jilg, Philipp Bechstein, Anastasia Saade, Moritz Dick, Tian Xiao Li, Gianluca Tosini, Abdelhaq Rami, Ajmal Zemmar, Jörg H Stehle
Mechanisms of hippocampus-related memory formation are time-of-day-dependent. While the circadian system and clock genes are related to timing of hippocampal mnemonic processes (acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval of long-term memory [LTM]) and long-term potentiation (LTP), little is known about temporal gating mechanisms. Here, the role of the neurohormone melatonin as a circadian time cue for hippocampal signaling and memory formation was investigated in C3H/He wildtype (WT) and melatonin-receptor-knockout (MT1/2 -/- ) mice...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Pineal Research
Lu Zhang, Zhenzhen Zhang, Jing Wang, Dongying Lv, Tianqi Zhu, Feng Wang, Xiuzhi Tian, Yujun Yao, Pengyun Ji, Guoshi Liu
Female fertility irreversibly declines with aging and this, is primarily associated with the decreased quality and quantity of oocytes. To evaluate whether a long-term of melatonin treatment would improve the fertility of aged mice, different concentrations of melatonin (10-3 , 10-5 , 10-7 M) were supplemented into drinking water. Melatonin treatments improved the litter sizes of mice at the age of 24 weeks. Mice treated with 10-5 M melatonin had the largest litter size among other concentrations. At this optimal concentration, melatonin not only significantly increased the total number of oocytes but also their quality, having more oocytes with normal morphology that could generate more blastocyst after in vitro fertilization in melatonin (10-5 M) treated group than that in the controls...
December 30, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Caroline Aparecida Pereira de Souza, Camila Congentino Gallo, Ludmilla Scodeler de Camargo, Paula Vargas Versignassi de Carvalho, Ingrid Fernandes Olesçuck, Felipe Macedo, Fernanda Marques da Cunha, José Cipolla-Neto, Fernanda Gaspar do Amaral
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) influences energy balance through non-shivering thermogenesis and its metabolism daily and seasonal variations are regulated by melatonin through partially known mechanisms. We evaluated the role of melatonin in BAT molecular machinery of male Control, Pinealectomized (PINX) and Melatonin-treated Pinealectomized (PINX/Mel) adult rats. BAT was collected either every 3 hours over 24 hours or after cold or high fat diet (HFD) acute exposure. HFD PINX animals presented decreased Dio2 expression while HFD PINX/Mel animals showed increased Dio2, Ucp1 and Cidea expression...
December 30, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Haixia Zhang, Lin Wang, Kun Shi, Dongqian Shan, Yunpeng Zhu, Chanyu Wang, Yixue Bai, Tianci Yan, Xiaodong Zheng, Jin Kong
Melatonin regulates the seasonal reproduction in photoperiodic sensitive animals. Its function in plants reproduction has not been extensively studied. In the current study, the effects of melatonin on the apple tree flowering have been systematically investigated. For consecutive two- year monitoring, it was found that the flowering was always associated with the drop of melatonin level in apple tree. Melatonin application before flowering postponed apple tree flowering with a dose-dependent manner. The increased melatonin levels at a suitable range also resulted in more flowering...
December 30, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Tian Li, Shuai Jiang, Chenxi Lu, Wenwen Yang, Zhi Yang, Wei Hu, Zhenlong Xin, Yang Yang
Melatonin is a signal molecule that modulates the biological circadian rhythms of vertebrates. Melatonin deficiency is thought to be associated with several disorders, including insomnia, cancer, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Accumulating evidence has also indicated that melatonin may be involved in the homeostasis of bone metabolism. Age-related reductions in melatonin are considered to be critical factors in bone loss and osteoporosis with aging. Thus, serum melatonin levels might serve as a biomarker for the early detection and prevention of osteoporosis...
December 29, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Yaoyao Xia, Siyuan Chen, Sijing Zeng, Yuanyuan Zhao, Congrui Zhu, Baichuan Deng, Guoqiang Zhu, Yulong Yin, Wence Wang, Rüdiger Hardeland, Wenkai Ren
Melatonin is a ubiquitous hormone found in various organisms, and highly affects the function of immune cells. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the significance of melatonin in macrophage biology and the beneficial effects of melatonin in macrophage-associated diseases. Enzymes associated with synthesis of melatonin, as well as membrane receptors for melatonin are found in macrophages. Indeed, melatonin influences the phenotype polarization of macrophages. Mechanistically, the roles of melatonin in macrophages are related to several cellular signaling pathways, such as NF-κB, STATs, and NLRP3/caspase-1...
December 29, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Gabriella Gobbi, Stefano Comai
The pharmacological potential of targeting selectively melatonin MT1 or MT2 receptors has not yet been exploited in medicine. Research using selective MT1/MT2 receptor ligands and MT1/MT2 receptor knockout mice has indicated that the activation of MT2 receptors selectively increases non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep whereas MT1 receptors seem mostly implicated in the regulation of REM sleep. Moreover, MT1 knockout mice show an increase in NREM sleep, while MT2 knockout a decrease, suggesting an opposite role of these two receptors...
December 26, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
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