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Biomedical Research

Hikaru Takeshita, Eri Watanabe, Yoshihiko Norose, Yasuhiko Ito, Hidemi Takahashi
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) urease is a key protein for persistent infection of the bacteria in the stomach. Although H. pylori generally induce anti-H. pylori-specific antibodies (Abs), these Abs do not usually work for eradication or prevention of the H. pylori infection. In our previous study, we identified a linear epitope composed of 19-mer peptides termed UB-33, CHHLDKSIKEDVQFADSRI, within the large subunit of H. pylori urease. Anti-UB-33-specific Abs neutralized the enzymatic activity of H. pylori urease in vitro...
2019: Biomedical Research
Toshihiko Iwanaga, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Hiromi Takahashi-Iwanaga
The vitreous of perinatal mice temporarily develops a unique vascular system, called the vasa hyaloidea propria (VHP). Observations showed the vessels possessed an extracellular matrix including the basement membrane in their entire length. Immunostaining of whole mount preparations of VHP with integrin β1 antibody displayed a bush-like network consisting of long and straight fibers which were associated with the VHP but extended apart from the blood vessels. Electron microscopically, each fiber was composed of a bundle of thin filaments different from collagen fibrils...
2019: Biomedical Research
Yuki Hirata, Takashi Toyono, Shoichiro Kokabu, Yui Obikane, Shinji Kataoka, Mitsushiro Nakatomi, Chihiro Masaki, Ryuji Hosokawa, Yuji Seta
T1R1 and T1R3 are receptors expressed in taste buds that detect L-amino acids. These receptors are also expressed throughout diverse organ systems, such as the digestive system and muscle tissue, and are thought to function as amino acid sensors. The mechanism of transcriptional regulation of the mouse T1R1 gene (Tas1r1) has not been determined; therefore, in this study, we examined the function of Tas1r1 promoter in the mouse myoblast cell line, C2C12. Luciferase reporter assays showed that a 148-bp region upstream of the ATG start codon of Tas1r1 had a promoter activity...
2019: Biomedical Research
Keisuke Morita, Rie Azumi, Masatoshi Sato, Yusuke Mizutani, Manabu Hayatsu, Shuji Terai, Tatsuo Ushiki
The basal lamina of the villous epithelium in the small intestine has numerous fenestrations, which are produced by leukocytes for their intraepithelial migration. We previously showed that these fenestrations change due to the dynamics of migrating leukocytes in response to dietary conditions and suggested the possibility that this change is related to the regulation of the absorption of large-sized nutrients such as chylomicrons. The present study was, thus, designed to investigate structural changes in basal lamina fenestrations in response to a high-fat diet...
2019: Biomedical Research
Noriko Tosa, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Motoko Takahashi, Jiro Arikawa
Can f 1 belongs to the lipocalin superfamily and is considered to be an animal allergen. The immune response induced by Can f 1 in mice was compared with that induced by ovalbumin (OVA), a typical food allergen. Female BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice (6 weeks of age) were subcutaneously injected with Can f 1 or OVA with or without aluminum hydroxide (Alum) three times with intervals of two weeks. Serum levels of total IgE or antigen-specific IgE and production of IL13 and IFNγ from splenocytes were analyzed. Immunization with Can f 1 or OVA increased serum levels of both total IgE and antigen-specific IgE significantly irrespective of Alum...
2019: Biomedical Research
Marie Kijima, Ryushin Mizuta
Oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation are two hallmarks of apoptosis. However, their generation mechanisms are not entirely understood. Histone H1, a positively charged nuclear protein located in the linker region of chromatin, is involved in higher-order chromatin structures and tight chromatin packing. On the basis of the physical and biochemical characteristics of histone H1, we hypothesized that histone H1 plays a role in determining the efficiencies of apoptotic DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation...
2019: Biomedical Research
Seitaro Nakazawa, Ken-Ichiro Sakata, Shanshan Liang, Kazuhito Yoshikawa, Hisashi Iizasa, Mitsuhiro Tada, Jun-Ichi Hamada, Haruhiko Kashiwazaki, Yoshimasa Kitagawa, Yutaka Yamazaki
The tumor suppressor gene TP53 (gene) codes for a transcription factor which transactivates its target genes responsible for cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, apoptosis, and senescence. TP53 is well known to be the most frequent target of genetic mutations in nearly half of human cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Many p53 mutants including R248Q and R248W not only lose its tumor-suppressor activities, but also interfere with the functions of wild-type p53; this is so-called dominant-negative (DN) mutation...
2019: Biomedical Research
Naoko Tanda, Yasushi Hoshikawa, Takuichi Sato, Nobuhiro Takahashi, Takeyoshi Koseki
One of the most severe complications of lung resection is postoperative pneumonia, and its prevention and prediction are critical. Exhaled acetone and isoprene are thought to be related to metabolism; however, little is known on their relationship with bacteria living in the oral cavity or their meaning in the acute phase in perioperative lung cancer patients. We measured acetone and isoprene in exhaled breath of 13 Japanese patients with lung cancer (3 women and 10 men, age range 62-82 years, mean 72.4 years) before breakfast during hospitalization, and compared with two acute-phase proteins, C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin in blood serum, as well as the total number of bacteria in saliva and their activity to produce acetone and isoprene...
2019: Biomedical Research
Daisuke Hagiuda, Ryo Nagashio, Masaaki Ichinoe, Benio Tsuchiya, Satoshi Igawa, Katsuhiko Naoki, Yukitoshi Satoh, Yoshiki Murakumo, Makoto Saegusa, Yuichi Sato
This study aimed to clarify relationships among UDP-glucose-6 dehydrogenase (UGDH) expression, clinicopathological factors, and the prognosis of patients, and to determine the role of UGDH in lung adenocarcinoma (AC). Firstly, UGDH expression and localization in 126 lung AC tissues were immunohistochemically studied, and associations with clinicopathological parameters and patients' prognosis were evaluated. Secondly, serum UGDH levels were measured in 267 lung cancer patients and 100 healthy controls. Finally, the effects of UGDH knockdown by siRNA on migration and invasion abilities were analyzed...
2019: Biomedical Research
Kazuyoshi Kaminaka, Junichi Matsuda, Chikateru Nozaki
For a long time, many types of vaccines have been useful for the prophylaxis of many infectious diseases. Thus far, many adjuvants that enhance the effects of vaccines have been explored. However, very few adjuvants are being used for humans worldwide. In this study, we investigated the adjuvant activity of various substances, and found citrulline to have high potential as an adjuvant. Citrulline is a type of amino acid present in the body of many organisms. A number of biological activities of citrulline have been reported; however, no adjuvant activity has been reported thus far...
2019: Biomedical Research
Satoshi Tsuzuki, Shinhye Lee, Yusaku Kimoto, Tatsuya Sugawara, Yuki Manabe, Kazuo Inoue
Class B scavenger receptor family members, scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), are broadly expressed cell-surface proteins, both of which are believed to serve as multifaceted players in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in mammals. Because of its presence in the apical part of taste receptor cells within circumvallate taste buds and its ability to recognise long-chain fatty acids, CD36 has been believed to participate in the sensing of the lipid species within the oral cavity...
2018: Biomedical Research
Yohei Nishida, Yurie Yamada, Hiroko Kanemaru, Atsushi Ohazama, Takeyasu Maeda, Kenji Seo
Peripheral nerve injury has been suggested to up-regulate mRNA for the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which enhances nerve regeneration. VEGF is known to regulate angiogenesis by binding with a specific receptor, the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). However, little is known about the involvement of VEGF-VEGFR signaling in the nerve regeneration at early stages though previous studies contained a lengthy observation. The present study examined that relationship between angiogenesis and peripheral nerve regeneration at the early stage after nerve transection by focusing on the chronological changes in the expression patterns of VEGF-VEGFR signaling...
2018: Biomedical Research
Jun Hai, Fuminori Kawabata, Yuko Kawabata, Ruojun Liang, Shotaro Nishimura, Shoji Tabata
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nociceptive cation channel that is activated by heat, protons and chemical ligands such as capsaicin. We investigated the roles of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1, in controlling the energy metabolism of the whole body. It has been reported that the activation of TRPV1 by its agonists enhances energy metabolism. In this study, we used a respiratory gas analysis system to examine whether the inhibition of TRPV1 changes energy metabolism in mice. In addition, we examined the contributions of different modes of TRPV1 activation (heat, protons and capsaicin) to determine the influence of 3 different TRPV1 antagonists on energy metabolism...
2018: Biomedical Research
Kimio Sugaya, Saori Nishijima, Katsumi Kadekawa, Katsuhiko Noguchi, Katsuhiro Ashitomi, Tomoyuki Ueda, Hideyuki Yamamoto
Pelvic venous congestion (PC) is thought to be related to several diseases of the lower urinary tract (LUT). We examined the characteristics of the LUT in rats with PC. To create PC, female rats were anesthetized with isoflurane, and the bilateral common iliac veins and bilateral uterine veins were ligated. At 1-8 weeks after either ligation or sham surgery, we performed cystometry with or without administration of carbazochrome sodium sulfonate hydrate or propiverine hydrochloride, histologic examination of the bladder, blood flow imaging, assessment of locomotor activity, measurement of urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), and the Evans blue dye extravasation test...
2018: Biomedical Research
Yuji Kasukawa, Naohisa Miyakoshi, Masazumi Suzuki, Hiroyuki Tsuchie, Chie Sato, Tetsuya Kawano, Manabu Akagawa, Yuichi Ono, Yoichi Shimada
We evaluated the analgesic effects of minodronate, alendronate and pregabalin on mechanical and thermal allodynia, as well as changes in bone mineral density and skeletal muscle volume caused by chronic constriction injury (CCI) in an ovariectomized rat. Ovariectomy was performed on four-week-old female Wistar rats. Thereafter, at 8-weeks of age, the left sciatic nerve was ligated to create the chronic pain model (CCI limb), and sham surgery was performed on the right hindlimb. In all rats, either minodronate (0...
2018: Biomedical Research
Hiroki Yoshioka, Tsunemasa Nonogaki, Hiroyuki Ohnishi, Nobuyuki Fukuishi, Masae Yoshikawa, Ming-Yu Gui, Yong-Ri Jin, Xu-Wen Li, Yoshiyuki Adachi, Naohito Ohno, Koichi Takeya, Yukio Hitotsuyanagi, Nobuhiko Miura, Yutaka Aoyagi
The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of kamebakaurin (KA) and 1O, 20O-diacetyl kamebakaurin (Ac2 KA) on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity and compare the hepatoprotective mechanisms of the two chemicals. Seven-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were orally administered KA, Ac2 KA, or an ethanol/olive oil emulsion once per day for 7-days. Twenty-four hours after the final administration, the mice were fasted and then intraperitoneally injected with 450 mg/kg APAP or saline. At 16 h after injection, the mice were euthanized and blood samples were collected for plasma analysis...
2018: Biomedical Research
Eri Matsubara, Tatsuro Ohira
Essential oils have potential to mitigate stress symptoms and treat symptoms related to mental health. Few studies have investigated the effects of wood-derived aromatics on endocrinological and psychological responses in an actual space. In this study, we evaluated the effects of essential oil derived from Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) wood on the recovery state of female participants after they performed monotonous work. We determined the levels of salivary stress markers to describe the endocrinological responses...
2018: Biomedical Research
Hidemi Yoshida, Tadaatsu Imaizumi, Tomoh Matsumiya, Kazuhiko Seya, Shogo Kawaguchi, Hiroshi Tanaka
The innate immune system is a prerequisite for biophylactic ability, but its dysregulation can cause inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. To determine a safe method of controlling inflammatory reactions in the brain, we examined the effects of gnetin C, a natural resveratrol dimer, on C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and CCL5 (pro-inflammatory chemokines) production observed after treatment with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly IC; a synthetic analog of dsRNA as a Toll-like receptor 3 (TRL3) ligand, 30 μg/mL] in cultured human astrocytoma U373MG and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
2018: Biomedical Research
Kan Hasegawa, Haruyuki Kamiya, Yuji Morimoto
Although diverse effects of volatile anesthetics have been investigated in various studies, the mechanisms of action of such anesthetics, especially sevoflurane, remain elusive. In contrast to their potent modulation of inhibitory synaptic transmission there is little information about their effects on excitatory transmission in the brain. In this study, we examined the effect of sevoflurane on the excitatory synaptic transmission at CA1 synapses in hippocampal slices of mice. Sevoflurane at 5% was mixed with 95% O2 and 5% CO2 and bubbled in artificial cerebral spinal fluid (0...
2018: Biomedical Research
Takahiro Hirabayashi, Michio Yamashita, Nobuhiro Wada, Fumiko Takenoya, Hiroko Ikeda, Junzo Kamei, Tomoo Ryushi, Noriyuki Yamamoto, Seiji Shioda
Previous studies have shown that dissolved substances in some natural hot springs have analgesic/anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory actions. However, the mechanisms underlying how such dissolved substances exert these actions are not fully understood. In the present study on mice, we examined the analgesic/anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of a mineral cream containing natural hot spring ingredients. The anti-nociceptive effects of the mineral cream were assessed by using the von Frey test...
2018: Biomedical Research
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