Biomedical Research | Page 2

Tetsu Kawabata, Haruhiko Tokuda, Kazuhiko Fujita, Rie Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Go Sakai, Junko Tachi, Tomoyuki Hioki, Woo Kim, Hiroki Iida, Takanobu Otsuka, Osamu Kozawa
Migration of osteoblasts to the sites resorbed by osteoclasts is an essential step in bone remodeling. However, the exact mechanism of osteoblast migration is still not known. We have shown that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB induces the migration of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells through the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p44/p42 MAP kinase. Evidence is accumulating that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) acts as a central regulator of proteostasis under stress conditions and physiological cell functions...
2019: Biomedical Research
Hiroto Sano, Anna Wakui, Miho Kawachi, Rito Kato, Sachie Moriyama, Mayumi Nishikata, Jumpei Washio, Yuki Abiko, Gen Mayanagi, Keiko Yamaki, Reiko Sakashita, Junko Tomida, Yoshiaki Kawamura, Kaori Tanaka, Nobuhiro Takahashi, Takuichi Sato
It is suspected that oral bacteria are transferred to the liquid baby formula through the artificial nipple and multiply in the bottle after feeding. In the present study, in order to understand the influence of bacteria on liquid baby formula after feeding, the transfer of oral bacteria through artificial nipples and their survival in liquid baby formula were examined immediately after drinking as well as after storage at 4°C for 3 h. Four healthy human subjects (20-23 years old) were asked to drink liquid baby formula (Aptamil® , ca...
2019: Biomedical Research
Yuuki Horii, Takahiko Shiina, Saki Uehara, Kanako Nomura, Hiroki Shimaoka, Kazuhiro Horii, Yasutake Shimizu
Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRBP) plays important roles in protection against harmful effects of cold temperature. We previously found that several splicing variants of CIRBP mRNA are constitutively expressed in the heart of non-hibernating euthermic hamsters and that one of the variants is predominantly expressed with remarkable reduction in the expression of other variants in hibernating hypothermic hamsters. The aim of this study was to determine whether the regulation of alternative splicing is a common function in a non-hibernator, the mouse...
2019: Biomedical Research
Saori Nishijima, Kimio Sugaya, Katsumi Kadekawa, Katsuhiro Ashitomi, Tomoyuki Ueda, Hideyuki Yamamoto
We investigated the mechanisms by which propiverine hydrochloride influenced bladder activity in rats with pelvic venous congestion (PC) and urinary frequency. To create PC rats, female rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and the bilateral common iliac veins and bilateral uterine veins were ligated. At 4 weeks after ligation, we assessed voiding behaviour, locomotor activity, and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and nitric oxide metabolites (NOx). We also performed cystometry and measured mRNAs for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and several receptors in the bladder wall...
2019: Biomedical Research
Naznin Khadiza, Tomoka Hasegawa, Tomoya Nagai, Tomomaya Yamamoto, Yukina Miyamoto-Takasaki, Hiromi Hongo, Miki Abe, Mai Haraguchi, Tsuneyuki Yamamoto, Yimin, Zixuan Qiu, Muneteru Sasaki, Shinichiro Kuroshima, Hayato Ohshima, Paulo Henrique Luiz de Freitas, Minqi Li, Yasutaka Yawaka, Norio Amizuka
In this study, we attempted to localize the immunoreactivities of podoplanin/E11/gp38 and CD44, a counterpart possessing a high affinity to podoplanin/E11/gp38, as well as endomucin-immunoreactive blood vessels in the regions of odontoblast layers and the underlying sub-odontoblastic layers in murine tooth germs. Endomucin-reactive small blood vessels were scattered throughout the dental papillae of the tooth germs at postnatal day 1 but came to be localized close to the odontoblast/sub-odontoblastic layers until day 3...
2019: Biomedical Research
Yuusuke Saitsu, Akemi Nishide, Kenji Kikushima, Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Koichiro Ohnuki
Hericium erinaceus has been recognized as medical mushroom since ancient time, but its scientific evidence for human health has been still uncertain. In this study, we tested a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group comparative study to evaluate the improvement of the cognitive functions by taking supplements containing fruiting body of H. erinaceus for 12 weeks. We performed three kinds of tests: Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Benton visual retention test, and Standard verbal paired-associate learning test (S-PA)...
2019: Biomedical Research
Mina Fujitani, Takafumi Mizushige, Keshab Bhattarai, Sudhashree Adhikari, Junji Ishikawa, Taro Kishida
We previously found that daidzein decreased food intake in female rats. To understand the mechanism of anorectic action of dietary daidzein, it is necessary to determine distributions of daidzein and S-equol, a metabolite of intestinal bacterial conversion from daidzein, in the body. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of daidzein and S-equol in serum and bile in sham-operated and ovariectomized female rats fed a diet containing 150 mg/kg daidzein for 7 days. Dietary daidzein increased serum and bile concentrations of S-equol to far higher levels than those of daidzein...
2019: Biomedical Research
Hanako Wakatsuki, Minoru Shibata, Ken Matsuda, Noboru Sato
Nerve transfer involves the use of a portion of a healthy nerve to repair an injured nerve, and the process has been used to alleviate traumatic brachial plexus injuries in humans. Study of the neural mechanisms that occur during nerve transfer, however, requires the establishment of reliable experimental models. In this study, we developed an ulnar-musculocutaneous nerve-transfer model wherein the biceps muscle of a mouse was re-innervated using a donor ulnar nerve. Similar muscle action potentials were detected in both the end-to-end suture of the transected nerve (correctrepair) group and the ulnar-musculocutaneous nerve-transfer group...
2019: Biomedical Research
Kensuke Shimada, Tomo Onishi, Yoshiko Ogawa, Junichiro Yamauchi, Shigeo Kawada
Unilateral training of both lateral limbs increases unilateral muscle strength, whereas bilateral training increases bilateral muscle strength, a phenomenon known as lateral specificity in resistance training. Although motor imagery (MI) combined with action observation (AO) (i.e., MI + AO) training increases muscle strength, it is not completely understood whether such training increases the lateral specificity of muscle strength in a way resistance training does. To investigate whether MI + AO induces lateral specificity of muscle strength increase, 18 healthy subjects were divided into groups: MI + AO and the control groups...
2019: Biomedical Research
Hikaru Takeshita, Eri Watanabe, Yoshihiko Norose, Yasuhiko Ito, Hidemi Takahashi
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) urease is a key protein for persistent infection of the bacteria in the stomach. Although H. pylori generally induce anti-H. pylori-specific antibodies (Abs), these Abs do not usually work for eradication or prevention of the H. pylori infection. In our previous study, we identified a linear epitope composed of 19-mer peptides termed UB-33, CHHLDKSIKEDVQFADSRI, within the large subunit of H. pylori urease. Anti-UB-33-specific Abs neutralized the enzymatic activity of H. pylori urease in vitro...
2019: Biomedical Research
Toshihiko Iwanaga, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Hiromi Takahashi-Iwanaga
The vitreous of perinatal mice temporarily develops a unique vascular system, called the vasa hyaloidea propria (VHP). Observations showed the vessels possessed an extracellular matrix including the basement membrane in their entire length. Immunostaining of whole mount preparations of VHP with integrin β1 antibody displayed a bush-like network consisting of long and straight fibers which were associated with the VHP but extended apart from the blood vessels. Electron microscopically, each fiber was composed of a bundle of thin filaments different from collagen fibrils...
2019: Biomedical Research
Yuki Hirata, Takashi Toyono, Shoichiro Kokabu, Yui Obikane, Shinji Kataoka, Mitsushiro Nakatomi, Chihiro Masaki, Ryuji Hosokawa, Yuji Seta
T1R1 and T1R3 are receptors expressed in taste buds that detect L-amino acids. These receptors are also expressed throughout diverse organ systems, such as the digestive system and muscle tissue, and are thought to function as amino acid sensors. The mechanism of transcriptional regulation of the mouse T1R1 gene (Tas1r1) has not been determined; therefore, in this study, we examined the function of Tas1r1 promoter in the mouse myoblast cell line, C2C12. Luciferase reporter assays showed that a 148-bp region upstream of the ATG start codon of Tas1r1 had a promoter activity...
2019: Biomedical Research
Keisuke Morita, Rie Azumi, Masatoshi Sato, Yusuke Mizutani, Manabu Hayatsu, Shuji Terai, Tatsuo Ushiki
The basal lamina of the villous epithelium in the small intestine has numerous fenestrations, which are produced by leukocytes for their intraepithelial migration. We previously showed that these fenestrations change due to the dynamics of migrating leukocytes in response to dietary conditions and suggested the possibility that this change is related to the regulation of the absorption of large-sized nutrients such as chylomicrons. The present study was, thus, designed to investigate structural changes in basal lamina fenestrations in response to a high-fat diet...
2019: Biomedical Research
Noriko Tosa, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Motoko Takahashi, Jiro Arikawa
Can f 1 belongs to the lipocalin superfamily and is considered to be an animal allergen. The immune response induced by Can f 1 in mice was compared with that induced by ovalbumin (OVA), a typical food allergen. Female BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice (6 weeks of age) were subcutaneously injected with Can f 1 or OVA with or without aluminum hydroxide (Alum) three times with intervals of two weeks. Serum levels of total IgE or antigen-specific IgE and production of IL13 and IFNγ from splenocytes were analyzed. Immunization with Can f 1 or OVA increased serum levels of both total IgE and antigen-specific IgE significantly irrespective of Alum...
2019: Biomedical Research
Marie Kijima, Ryushin Mizuta
Oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation are two hallmarks of apoptosis. However, their generation mechanisms are not entirely understood. Histone H1, a positively charged nuclear protein located in the linker region of chromatin, is involved in higher-order chromatin structures and tight chromatin packing. On the basis of the physical and biochemical characteristics of histone H1, we hypothesized that histone H1 plays a role in determining the efficiencies of apoptotic DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation...
2019: Biomedical Research
Seitaro Nakazawa, Ken-Ichiro Sakata, Shanshan Liang, Kazuhito Yoshikawa, Hisashi Iizasa, Mitsuhiro Tada, Jun-Ichi Hamada, Haruhiko Kashiwazaki, Yoshimasa Kitagawa, Yutaka Yamazaki
The tumor suppressor gene TP53 (gene) codes for a transcription factor which transactivates its target genes responsible for cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, apoptosis, and senescence. TP53 is well known to be the most frequent target of genetic mutations in nearly half of human cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Many p53 mutants including R248Q and R248W not only lose its tumor-suppressor activities, but also interfere with the functions of wild-type p53; this is so-called dominant-negative (DN) mutation...
2019: Biomedical Research
Naoko Tanda, Yasushi Hoshikawa, Takuichi Sato, Nobuhiro Takahashi, Takeyoshi Koseki
One of the most severe complications of lung resection is postoperative pneumonia, and its prevention and prediction are critical. Exhaled acetone and isoprene are thought to be related to metabolism; however, little is known on their relationship with bacteria living in the oral cavity or their meaning in the acute phase in perioperative lung cancer patients. We measured acetone and isoprene in exhaled breath of 13 Japanese patients with lung cancer (3 women and 10 men, age range 62-82 years, mean 72.4 years) before breakfast during hospitalization, and compared with two acute-phase proteins, C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin in blood serum, as well as the total number of bacteria in saliva and their activity to produce acetone and isoprene...
2019: Biomedical Research
Daisuke Hagiuda, Ryo Nagashio, Masaaki Ichinoe, Benio Tsuchiya, Satoshi Igawa, Katsuhiko Naoki, Yukitoshi Satoh, Yoshiki Murakumo, Makoto Saegusa, Yuichi Sato
This study aimed to clarify relationships among UDP-glucose-6 dehydrogenase (UGDH) expression, clinicopathological factors, and the prognosis of patients, and to determine the role of UGDH in lung adenocarcinoma (AC). Firstly, UGDH expression and localization in 126 lung AC tissues were immunohistochemically studied, and associations with clinicopathological parameters and patients' prognosis were evaluated. Secondly, serum UGDH levels were measured in 267 lung cancer patients and 100 healthy controls. Finally, the effects of UGDH knockdown by siRNA on migration and invasion abilities were analyzed...
2019: Biomedical Research
Kazuyoshi Kaminaka, Junichi Matsuda, Chikateru Nozaki
For a long time, many types of vaccines have been useful for the prophylaxis of many infectious diseases. Thus far, many adjuvants that enhance the effects of vaccines have been explored. However, very few adjuvants are being used for humans worldwide. In this study, we investigated the adjuvant activity of various substances, and found citrulline to have high potential as an adjuvant. Citrulline is a type of amino acid present in the body of many organisms. A number of biological activities of citrulline have been reported; however, no adjuvant activity has been reported thus far...
2019: Biomedical Research
Satoshi Tsuzuki, Shinhye Lee, Yusaku Kimoto, Tatsuya Sugawara, Yuki Manabe, Kazuo Inoue
Class B scavenger receptor family members, scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), are broadly expressed cell-surface proteins, both of which are believed to serve as multifaceted players in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in mammals. Because of its presence in the apical part of taste receptor cells within circumvallate taste buds and its ability to recognise long-chain fatty acids, CD36 has been believed to participate in the sensing of the lipid species within the oral cavity...
2018: Biomedical Research
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