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Biomedical Research | Page 2

Hidemi Yoshida, Tadaatsu Imaizumi, Tomoh Matsumiya, Kazuhiko Seya, Shogo Kawaguchi, Hiroshi Tanaka
The innate immune system is a prerequisite for biophylactic ability, but its dysregulation can cause inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. To determine a safe method of controlling inflammatory reactions in the brain, we examined the effects of gnetin C, a natural resveratrol dimer, on C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and CCL5 (pro-inflammatory chemokines) production observed after treatment with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly IC; a synthetic analog of dsRNA as a Toll-like receptor 3 (TRL3) ligand, 30 μg/mL] in cultured human astrocytoma U373MG and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
2018: Biomedical Research
Kan Hasegawa, Haruyuki Kamiya, Yuji Morimoto
Although diverse effects of volatile anesthetics have been investigated in various studies, the mechanisms of action of such anesthetics, especially sevoflurane, remain elusive. In contrast to their potent modulation of inhibitory synaptic transmission there is little information about their effects on excitatory transmission in the brain. In this study, we examined the effect of sevoflurane on the excitatory synaptic transmission at CA1 synapses in hippocampal slices of mice. Sevoflurane at 5% was mixed with 95% O2 and 5% CO2 and bubbled in artificial cerebral spinal fluid (0...
2018: Biomedical Research
Takahiro Hirabayashi, Michio Yamashita, Nobuhiro Wada, Fumiko Takenoya, Hiroko Ikeda, Junzo Kamei, Tomoo Ryushi, Noriyuki Yamamoto, Seiji Shioda
Previous studies have shown that dissolved substances in some natural hot springs have analgesic/anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory actions. However, the mechanisms underlying how such dissolved substances exert these actions are not fully understood. In the present study on mice, we examined the analgesic/anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of a mineral cream containing natural hot spring ingredients. The anti-nociceptive effects of the mineral cream were assessed by using the von Frey test...
2018: Biomedical Research
Jun-Ichi Hori, Daisuke Koga, Hidehiro Kakizaki, Tsuyoshi Watanabe
Despite their pharmacologically opposite actions, long-acting depot formulations of both GnRH agonists and antagonists have been clinically applied for treatment of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer. Sustained treatment with GnRH analogues commonly suppresses both the synthesis and release of gonadotropins, leading to depletion of testicular testosterone. To clarify the underlying differences in the effects of GnRH agonists and antagonists on spermatogenesis, we compared histological changes in the seminiferous epithelium after administration of depot formulations of GnRH agonist leuprorelin and antagonist degarelix to male rats...
2018: Biomedical Research
Yumi Matsushita, Naoki Kitamura, Masashi Higuchi, Yoshinao Z Hosaka, Izumi Shibuya
Ten pairs of protrusions, called accessory lobes (ALs), exist at the lateral sides of the avian lumbosacral spinal cord. Histological evidence indicates that neuron-like cells gather in the ALs, and behavioral evidence suggests that the ALs act as a sensory organ of equilibrium during bipedal walking. Recently, using an electrophysiological method, we reported that cells showing Na+ currents and action potentials exist among cells that were dissociated from the ALs. However, it was unclear which isoforms of the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) are expressed in the ALs and whether cells having neuronal morphology in the ALs express VGSCs...
2018: Biomedical Research
Takefumi Uemura, Naoki Sawada, Takao Sakaba, Satoshi Kametaka, Masaya Yamamoto, Satoshi Waguri
Adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1) and Golgi associated, γ-adaptin ear containing, Arf binding proteins (GGAs) are clathrin adaptors that regulate membrane trafficking between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. p56 is a clathrin adaptor accessory protein that may modulate the function of GGAs in mammalian cell lines. However, the precise relationship between p56 and the three GGAs (GGA1-3), as well as the physiological role of p56 in tissue cells, remain unknown. To this end, we generated an antibody against p56 and determined its cellular localization...
2018: Biomedical Research
Shunsuke Komaki, Eiko Sakai, Yutaka Fukuma, Kazuhisa Nishishita, Kuniaki Okamoto, Takayuki Tsukuba
Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone resorbing cells whose differentiation is regulated by several important signaling pathways. Several lines of evidence indicate that dihydroartemisinin (DHA), an anti-malarial drug, inhibits osteoclast differentiation with little cytotoxicity. However, the detailed inhibitory mechanisms of DHA on osteoclastogenesis from native cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effects of DHA on the differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages into osteoclasts...
2018: Biomedical Research
Keiichi Hatakeyama, Takeshi Nagashima, Kenichi Urakami, Keiichi Ohshima, Masakuni Serizawa, Sumiko Ohnami, Yuji Shimoda, Shumpei Ohnami, Koji Maruyama, Akane Naruoka, Yasuto Akiyama, Masatoshi Kusuhara, Tohru Mochizuki, Ken Yamaguchi
Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is an emerging characteristic in cancer and has been associated with microsatellite instability, defective DNA replication/repair, and response to PD-1 and PD-L1 blockade immunotherapy. When estimating TMB, targeted panel sequencing is performed using a few hundred genes; however, a comparison of TMB results obtained with this platform and with whole exome sequencing (WES) has not been performed for various cancer types. In the present study, we compared TMB results using the above two platforms in 2,908 solid tumors that were obtained from Japanese patients...
2018: Biomedical Research
Teruyuki Higa, Hana Takahashi, Sayomi Higa-Nakamine, Mikio Suzuki, Hideyuki Yamamoto
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is secreted from hypothalamic neurons (GnRH neurons) and stimulates anterior pituitary gonadotrophs to synthesize and secrete gonadotropins. In addition to gonadotrophs, GnRH neurons also express GnRH receptors, and the autocrine action of GnRH is reportedly involved in the regulation of functions of GnRH neurons. There is accumulating evidence that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), one of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), is activated by GnRH and involved in various effects of GnRH in GnRH neurons...
2018: Biomedical Research
Takuji Machida, Mikiko Yutani, Akihiro Goto, Saaya Nishimura, Ayaka Kawamura, Kenji Iizuka, Masahiko Hirafuji
Elevated mechanical stress applied to vascular walls is well known to modulate vascular remodeling and plays a part in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. On the other hand, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, has been shown to protect against several types of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and hypertension. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of pulsatile pressure stress and DHA on angiotensin II-induced proliferation and migration in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)...
2018: Biomedical Research
Junkichi Kanda, Nobuo Izumo, Megumi Furukawa, Taketoshi Shimakura, Noriaki Yamamoto, Hideaki E Takahashi, Toshinari Asakura, Hiroyuki Wakabayashi
Immunosuppressive therapy is considered as one of the factors inducing to the onset of osteoporosis after organ transplantation. Chronic immunosuppressive therapy after transplantation is required for organ transplant patients, and it is important to prevent the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures to maintain the quality of life in patients. In this study, we examined the effects of cyclosporine and tacrolimus on bone metabolism in rats. Five-week-old male Wistar rats were treated orally with 15 mg/kg cyclosporine or 1...
2018: Biomedical Research
Satoshi Tsuzuki, Yusaku Kimoto, Shinhye Lee, Tatsuya Sugawara, Yuki Manabe, Kazuo Inoue
Class B scavenger receptors, scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), are broadly expressed cell-surface proteins and are believed to serve as multifaceted players in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in mammals. Because of its ability to recognise distinct odour-active volatile compounds and its presence in murine olfactory epithelium, CD36 has recently emerged as a participant in the detection of odorants within the nasal cavity. However, there have been no attempts to assess whether SR-B1 has such a role...
2018: Biomedical Research
Syota Seino, Takeru Kimoto, Hidemi Yoshida, Kunikazu Tanji, Tomoh Matsumiya, Ryo Hayakari, Kazuhiko Seya, Shogo Kawaguchi, Kazushi Tsuruga, Hiroshi Tanaka, Tadaatsu Imaizumi
Accumulation and oligomerization of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides have been known to be a potent cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). To expand the possibilities of preventing AD, we investigated the effects of resveratrol dimers, gnetin C and ε-viniferin, on Aβ 1-42 (Aβ42) production and the reduced cell viability observed after Aβ42 treatment (monomers, 10 μM) in cultured SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Among them, addition of gnetin C (20 μM) into the media reduced Aβ42 production most efficiently...
2018: Biomedical Research
Takeshi Ishino, Mayuko Hashimoto, Misato Amagasa, Natsuko Saito, Osamu Dochi, Rikio Kirisawa, Hiroshi Kitamura
Recently, gene-editing using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/ CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) technique has attempted to utilize fibroblasts of livestock animals for somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study, we establish the procedure for preparing skin fibroblast clones whose genes were edited by the CRISPR/Cas9 technique. After isolating fibroblasts from earlobes of Japanese Black cattle, subsequent collagenase-digestion and extensive wash procedures enabled us to avoid contamination of fungi...
2018: Biomedical Research
Lei Wang, Xiankui Li, Cai Chen
Chloroform is a common contaminant in the drinking water. Exposure of human to chloroform leads to severe hepatotoxicity. In the present study, chloroform-induced acute liver injury was investigated in mice using 3-methyadenine (3-MA), a common autophagy inhibitor. At 24 h after intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 mL/kg chloroform, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were increased significantly; extensive necrosis and inflammation occurred as identified by histological examinations. Moreover, chloroform induced an increase in lipid peroxidation as demonstrated by increased formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver tissues...
2018: Biomedical Research
Makoto Konishi, Norihisa Shindo, Masataka Komiya, Kozo Tanaka, Takehiko Itoh, Toru Hirota
Separation of sister chromatids is a drastic and irreversible step in the cell cycle. The key biochemistry behind this event is the proteolysis mediated by the ubiquitin ligase called the anaphase promoting complex, or APC/C. Securin and cyclin B1 are the two established substrates for APC/C whose degradation releases separase and inactivates cyclin B1-dependent kinase 1 (cdk1), respectively, at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. In this study, we have combined biochemical quantifications with mathematical simulations to characterize the kinetic regulation of securin and cyclin B1, in the cytoplasmic and chromosomal compartments, and found that they are differentially distributed and degraded with different rates...
2018: Biomedical Research
Rie Azumi, Keisuke Morita, Yusuke Mizutani, Manabu Hayatsu, Shuji Terai, Tatsuo Ushiki
The epithelial basal lamina of the small intestine forms a felt-like sheet at the base of the epithelium. Previous studies have shown that the basal lamina has numerous fenestrations, which are produced by leukocytes penetrating through the basal lamina. In this study, we aimed to directly visualize fenestrations of the rat basal lamina in intestinal villi by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after removal of the villous epithelium by osmium maceration and ultrasonic treatment. Structural changes in fenestrations were then investigated in relation to dietary conditions...
2018: Biomedical Research
Kakeru Ito, Miho Yasuda, Yuki Maeda, Jean-Michel Fustin, Yoshiaki Yamaguchi, Yuka Kono, Hiromitsu Negoro, Akihiro Kanematsu, Osamu Ogawa, Masao Doi, Hitoshi Okamura
Micturition behavior follows regular day/night fluctuations, and unwanted increase in micturition could occur during night in jet lag condition. To clarify the effect of jet lag on micturition behavior, we simultaneously detected circadian micturition patterns and locomotor activity rhythms of mice under experimental jet lag conditions, by applying the improved automated Voided Stain on Paper (aVSOP) method. When wild-type (WT) mice were phase-advanced for 8 hours, day-night variation of micturition was disrupted suddenly, and this irregular daily micturition continued until 8 days, although their activity rhythms entrained gradually day by day until 8 days...
2018: Biomedical Research
Hiroshi Kawai, Jin Inabe, Takuya Ishibashi, Naomi Kudo, Yoichi Kawashima, Atsushi Mitsumoto
Circadian disruption affects the pathogenesis and development of various diseases. Depression is one of the most common diseases that relate to circadian rhythm. In this study, we analyzed the effects of daily light/dark (LD) conditions on depression and other symptoms, and also analyzed the mixed effects of LD conditions and corticosterone treatment. Male adult C57BL/6 mice were treated with corticosterone in a normal LD cycle of 12 hours light and 12 hours dark (LD12 : 12), short day conditions of 6 hours light and 18 hours dark (LD6 : 18), or long day conditions of 21 hours light and 3 hours dark (LD21 : 3)...
2018: Biomedical Research
Hitoshi Saito, Rui Kato, Toshikazu Hashimoto, Yosuke Uchida, Tetsutaro Hase, Kenkichi Tsuruga, Koichi Takita, Yuji Morimoto
For several decades, the neurotoxicities of anesthetics to the developing brain have been reported by many researchers focusing on various phenomena such as apoptosis, neurodegeneration, electrophysiological aberrations, and behavioral abnormalities. According to these reports, signals via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA-r) and/or γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAA -r) are implicated in the anesthetic neurotoxicity. On the other hand, during brain development, NMDA-r and GABAA -r are also recognized to play primary roles in neural cell migration...
2018: Biomedical Research
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