journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/39008292/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-and-experimental-chagas-disease-an-unsolved-question
#1
REVIEW
Scheila Thaís Nicolau, Daniela Patrícia Tres, Thaís Soprani Ayala, Rafael Andrade Menolli
Chagas disease is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi with an acute, detectable blood parasites phase and a chronic phase, in which the parasitemia is not observable, but cardiac and gastrointestinal consequences are possible. Mice are the principal host used in experimental Chagas disease but reproduce the human infection depending on the animal and parasite strain, besides dose and route of administration. Lipidic mediators are tremendously involved in the pathogenesis of T. cruzi infection, meaning the prostaglandins and thromboxane, which participate in the immunosuppression characteristic of the acute phase...
July 2024: Parasite Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38979848/evaluation-of-somatic-antigens-of-adult-toxocara-helminthes-for-detection-of-human-toxocariasis
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Zahra Navi, Reza Falak, Mehdi Mohebali, Mohammad Bagher Molairad, Zabihollah Zarei, Mojgan Aryaeipour, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani, Mohammad Zibaei, Mohammad Bagher Rokni
We aimed to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to evaluate the presence of specific IgG against Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati somatic antigens on the serum of patients with toxocariasis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for indirect-ELISA were calculated by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis and Youden's J using Likelihood ratio. All statistics were analysed and graphs are plotted using GraphPad Prism version 8.4.3 (Graph Pad Software, La Jolla, CA, USA), with 95% confidence interval (CI)...
July 2024: Parasite Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38922988/variants-of-nlrp3-protein-in-haemonchus-contortus-infected-sheep-impact-on-immune-cell-responsiveness-to-lps-in-vitro
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Denzel Middleton, Kelly Hanlon, Scott P Greiner, Scott A Bowdridge
Pathogen recognition is an essential component to achieve the desired outcome of host protection. Nod-like receptor pyrin containing domain 3 (NLRP3) is a cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor (PRR) with a wide array of agonists, such as PAMPs, DAMPs, ATP, bacterial product and viral products. Stimulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome results in proteolytic activation of IL-1β and IL-18, cell pyroptosis and classically, the induction of proinflammatory responses. St. Croix (STC) sheep have resistance traits exhibiting the appropriate T-helper type 2 immune response ensuing protection during helminth parasitic infection whereas parasite-susceptible Suffolk (SUF) sheep have an impaired response resulting in parasite establishment and adverse symptoms...
June 2024: Parasite Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38838041/receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-product-rage-modulates-inflammation-during-feeding-of-the-hard-tick-haemaphysalis-longicornis-in-mice
#4
REVIEW
Anisuzzaman, Md Abdul Alim, Makoto Matsubyashi, Md Shahadat Hossain, Sharmin Shahid Labony, Ireen Sultana Shanta, Md Haydar Ali, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, Takeshi Hatta, Naotoshi Tsuji
Ticks are notorious blood-sucking ectoparasites that affect both humans and animals. They serve as a unique vector of various deadly diseases. Here, we have shown the roles of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) during repeated infestations by the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis using RAGE-/- mice. In primary infestation, a large blood pool developed, which was flooded with numerous RBCs, especially during the rapid feeding phase of the tick both in wild-type (wt) and RAGE-/- mice. Very few inflammatory cells were detected around the zones of haemorrhage in the primary infestations...
June 2024: Parasite Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38817112/circadian-regulation-of-leishmania-parasite-internalisation-in-macrophages-and-downstream-cellular-events
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Priscilla Carvalho Cabral, Sophia K Stegeman, Martin Olivier, Nicolas Cermakian
Leishmania spp. parasites use macrophages as a host cell during infection. As a result, macrophages have a dual role: clearing the parasite as well as acting as host cells. Recently, studies have shown that macrophages harbour circadian clocks, which affect many of their functions such as phagocytosis, receptor expression and cytokine release. Interestingly, Leishmania major infection in hosts was also shown to be under circadian control. Therefore, we decided to investigate what underlies the rhythms of L...
June 2024: Parasite Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38801355/the-acute-inflammatory-potential-of-particles-from-the-echinococcus-granulosus-laminated-layer-is-moderated-by-its-calcium-inositol-hexakisphosphate-component
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Leticia Grezzi, Carlos González, Álvaro Díaz, Cecilia Casaravilla
Cystic echinococcosis is caused by the tissue-dwelling larva (hydatid) of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. A salient feature is that this larva is protected by the acellular laminated layer (LL). As the parasite grows, the LL sheds abundant particles that can accumulate in the parasite's vicinity. The potential of LL particles to induce inflammation in vivo has not been specifically analysed. It is not known how each of its two major components, namely highly glycosylated mucins and calcium inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6 ) deposits, impacts inflammation induced by the LL as a whole...
May 2024: Parasite Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38767154/interleukin-17f-gene-polymorphism-as-a-potential-protective-factor-in-the-immunopathology-of-ocular-toxoplasmosis
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Danilo Donizete da Silva, Fábio Batista Frederico, Mariana Previato, Rubens Camargo Siqueira, Claudia Regina Bonini-Domingos, Victor Hugo de Souza, Lilian Castiglioni, Cinara Cássia Brandão, Luiz Carlos de Mattos, Christiane Maria Ayo
Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is characterised by intraocular inflammation due to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Studies have found that interleukin 17 (IL-17) plays a central role in the pathology of OT. However, nucleotide variability in IL17 and interleukin 17 receptor (IL17R) genes has not been characterised in OT. As cytokine gene polymorphisms may influence the expression of these molecules, the aim of this study was to verify whether IL17A (rs2275913), IL17F (rs763780), IL17RA (rs4819554) and IL17RC (rs708567) polymorphisms are associated with OT in a Brazilian population...
May 2024: Parasite Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38720446/immunotherapy-combining-mimotopes-selected-by-phage-display-plus-amphotericin-b-is-effective-for-treatment-against-visceral-leishmaniasis
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Tauane Gonçalves Soyer, Raquel Soares Bandeira Câmara, Isabela Amorim Gonçalves Pereira, Fernanda Fonseca Ramos, Marcelo Moreira de Jesus, Fernanda Ludolf, Guilherme de Paula Costa, Daniela Pagliara Lage, Camila Simões de Freitas, Danniele Luciana Vale, Breno Luiz Pimenta, Vívian Tamietti Martins, Alexsandro Sobreira Galdino, Miguel Angel Chávez-Fumagalli, Bruno Mendes Roatt, Grasiele de Sousa Vieira Tavares, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz Coelho
The treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) causes toxicity in patients, entails high cost and/or leads to the emergence of resistant strains. No human vaccine exists, and diagnosis presents problems related to the sensitivity or specificity of the tests. Here, we tested two phage clones, B1 and D11, which were shown to be protective against Leishmania infantum infection in a murine model as immunotherapeutics to treat mice infected with this parasite species. The phages were used alone or with amphotericin B (AmpB), while other mice received saline, AmpB, a wild-type phage (WTP) or WTP/AmpB...
May 2024: Parasite Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38720445/apolipoprotein-e-is-upregulated-in-blood-and-circulating-monocytes-of-indian-patients-with-visceral-leishmaniasis
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Gulafsha Kausar, Shashi B Chauhan, Ritirupa Roy, Shashi Kumar, Christian Engwerda, Susanne Nylen, Rajiv Kumar, Mary E Wilson, Shyam Sundar
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) has been associated with several diseases including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. ApoE also has documented immunomodulatory functions. We investigated gene expression in circulating monocytes and in bone marrows of patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) living in an endemic area in Bihar, India, and contrasted these with control healthy subjects or other diagnostic bone marrows from individuals in the same region. Samples from VL patients were obtained prior to initiating treatment...
May 2024: Parasite Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38712475/trichinella-spiralis-larval-extract-as-a-biological-anti-tumor-therapy-in-a-murine-model-of-ehrlich-solid%C3%A2-carcinoma
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Salwa S Younis, Amina M Salama, Dalia A Elmehy, Nehal A Heabah, Hanem M Rabah, Sara H Elakshar, Radwa A Awad, Ghada A Gamea
Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) is an immunomodulating parasite that can adversely affect tumor growth and extend host lifespan. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which T. spiralis larval antigens achieve this effect using Ehrlich solid carcinoma (ESC) murine model. Assessment was done by histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of caspase-3, TNF-α, Ki-67 and CD31. Additionally, Bcl2 and Bcl2-associated protein X (Bax) relative gene expression was assessed by molecular analysis for studying the effect of T...
May 2024: Parasite Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38625016/recombinant-cd5-and-cd6-ectodomains-induce-antiparasitic-and-immunomodulatory-effects-in-secondary-cystic-echinococcosis
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Joaquín García-Luna, Florencia Rivero-Osorio, María Clara González-Porcile, Paula Arbildi, Sebastián Miles, Javier Magnone, María Velasco-De-Andrés, Sylvia Dematteis, Francisco Lozano, Gustavo Mourglia-Ettlin
Scavenger receptors participate in a wide range of biological functions after binding to multiple non-self or altered self-ligands. Among them, CD5 and CD6 are lymphocyte scavenger receptors known to interact with different microbial-associated molecular patterns, and the administration of the recombinant soluble ectodomains of human CD5 (rshCD5) and/or CD6 (rshCD6) has shown therapeutic/prophylactic potential in experimental models of fungal, bacterial and echinococcal infections. The latter is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, which in humans can induce secondary cystic echinococcosis (CE) after the spillage of protoscoleces contained within fertile cysts, either spontaneously or during surgical removal of primary hydatid cysts...
April 2024: Parasite Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38607285/unveiling-the-role-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-pathways-in-canine-demodicosis
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Pamela A Kelly, Gillian P McHugo, Caitriona Scaife, Susan Peters, M Lynn Stevenson, Jennifer S McKay, David E MacHugh, Irene Lara Saez, Rory Breathnach
Canine demodicosis is a prevalent skin disease caused by overpopulation of a commensal species of Demodex mite, yet its precise cause remains unknown. Research suggests that T-cell exhaustion, increased immunosuppressive cytokines, induction of regulatory T cells and increased expression of immune checkpoint inhibitors may contribute to its pathogenesis. This study aimed to gain a deeper understanding of the molecular changes occurring in canine demodicosis using mass spectrometry and pathway enrichment analysis...
April 2024: Parasite Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38587985/antibody-response-to-malaria-vaccine-candidates-in-pregnant-women-with-plasmodium-falciparum-and-schistosoma-haematobium-infections
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Naa Adjeley Frempong, Atikatou Mama, Bright Adu, Kwadwo Asamoah Kusi, Michael F Ofori, Charity Ahiabor, William K Anyan, Alex Yaw Debrah, Abraham A Anang, Nicaise T Ndam, David Courtin
Malaria in pregnancy has severe consequences for the mother and foetus. Antibody response to specific malaria vaccine candidates (MVC) has been associated with a decreased risk of clinical malaria and its outcomes. We studied Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Schistosoma haematobium (Sh) infections and factors that could influence antibody responses to MVC in pregnant women. A total of 337 pregnant women receiving antenatal care (ANC) and 139 for delivery participated in this study. Pf infection was detected by qPCR and Sh infection using urine filtration method...
April 2024: Parasite Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38527908/status-of-b-lymphocyte-subsets-and-their-homing-markers-in-patients-with-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Shilpa Sengupta, Deep Goswami, Bidhan Chakraborty, Surya Jyati Chaudhuri, Manab K Ghosh, Mitali Chatterjee
In visceral leishmaniasis, the Type II helper T cell predominance results in B cell modulation and enhancement of anti-leishmanial IgG. However, information regarding its dermal sequel, post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), remains limited. Accordingly, this study aimed to elucidate the B cell-mediated antibody-dependent/independent immune profiles of PKDL patients. In the peripheral blood of PKDL patients, immunophenotyping of B cell subsets was performed by flow cytometry and by immunohistochemistry at lesional sites...
March 2024: Parasite Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38498004/potential-i-nos-arg-1-switch-with-nlrp3-and-parasitic-load-down-regulation-in-experimental-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-via-chloroquine-repurposing
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Marwa A Hasby Saad, Esraa G El-Saadi, Dareen A Ali, Mona M Watany, Mohammed M Eid
In previous studies, the inhibitory effect of chloroquine on NLRP3 inflammasome and heme production was documented. This may be employed as a double-bladed sword in schistosomiasis (anti-inflammatory and parasiticidal). In this study, chloroquine's impact on schistosomiasis mansoni was investigated. The parasitic load (worm/egg counts and reproductive capacity index [RCI]), i-Nos/Arg-1 expression, splenomegaly, hepatic insult and NLRP3-immunohistochemical expression were assessed in infected mice after receiving early and late repeated doses of chloroquine alone or dually with praziquantel...
March 2024: Parasite Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38497997/pyroptosis-tuning-in-intestinal-cryptosporidiosis-via-the-natural-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-romidepsin
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Noha E Shalaby, Zeinab S Shoheib, Nabila A Yassin, Heba H El-Kaliny, Marwa A Hasby Saad
Cryptosporidium is an opportunistic protozoan, with many species of cross-human infectivity. It causes life-threatening diarrhoea in children and CD4-defective patients. Despite its limited efficacy, nitazoxanide remains the primary anti-cryptosporidial drug. Cryptosporidium infects the intestinal brush border (intracellular-extracytoplasmic) and down-regulates pyroptosis to prevent expulsion. Romidepsin is a natural histone deacetylase inhibitor that triggers pyroptosis. Romidepsin's effect on cryptosporidiosis was assessed in immunocompromised mice via gasdermin-D (GSDM-D) immunohistochemical expression, IFN-γ, IL-1β and IL-18 blood levels by ELISA, and via parasite scanning by modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
March 2024: Parasite Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38465509/high-level-of-c3-is-associated-with-th2-immune-response-and-liver-fibrosis-in-patients-with-schistosomiasis
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Xianmo Wang, Quan Gong, Hao Nie, Jiancheng Tu, Wen Fan, Xiaoping Tan
Long-term infection of schistosomiasis will seriously affect the liver health of patients. The serum of 334 chronic Schistosoma japonicum patients and 149 healthy volunteers was collected. Compared with heathy people, the level of C4 (complement 4) was increased, and the level of C3 (complement 3) was in an obvious skewed distribution. ELISA was performed to detect the serum cytokines, the results showed that the levels of IFN-γ (interferon-γ), IL (interleukin)-2 and TNF-α (tumour necrosis factor-α) were reduced, while the levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) were increased...
March 2024: Parasite Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38389494/lasap-vaccine-immunotherapy-and-immunochemotherapy-associated-with-allopurinol-in-dogs-naturally-infected-with-leishmania-infantum
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ricardo B Clasta, Açucena Veleh Rivas, Adrieli Barboza Souza, Angelo G V Dos Santos, Andrés Hernán Mojoli Le Quesne, Ana Alice Maia Gonçalves, Alex Sander R Cangussu, Rodolfo C Giunchetti, Kelvinson F Viana
Canine visceral leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis that has a profound impact on public health in countries where it is endemic. Chemotherapeutic treatments cannot keep dogs stable for long periods, and the risk of generating parasitic resistance must be considered. Forty-four symptomatic and naturally infected dogs with Leishmania infantum were tested with two treatment protocols (i) immunotherapy with LaSap vaccine and (ii) immunochemotherapy with LaSap vaccine plus allopurinol. At 90 days after the end of the treatment, it was verified that, although both protocols had generated significant clinical improvements with a greater production of IFN-γ/IL-10, in relation to the parasite load, mainly in the skin, the dogs treated only with immunotherapy maintained the same profile...
February 2024: Parasite Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38385576/tnf-blockers-alone-and-associated-with-benznidazole-impact-in-vitro-cytokine-dynamics-in-chronic-chagas-disease
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Diego José Lira Torres, Kamila Kássia Dos Santos Oliveira, Michelle da Silva Barros, Leyllane Rafael Moreira, Luciane de Freitas Firmino, Maria da Piedade Costa Reis de Albuquerque, Maria da Glória Aureliano Melo Cavalcante, Sílvia Marinho Martins, Wilson Alves de Oliveira Junior, Michelle Christiane da Silva Rabello, Virginia Maria Barros de Lorena
Studies involving the immune response in Chagas disease suggest an imbalance in the immune response of symptomatic patients, with an inflammatory profile dominating in Chagas heart disease, mainly by tumour necrosis factor (TNF). TNF is considered a key cytokine in immunopathology in chronic carriers in several processes during the immune response. Our work aimed to evaluate regulatory (interleukin [IL]-4 and IL-10) and inflammatory (TNF, interferon-gamma [IFN-γ], IL-2 and IL-6) cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells culture supernatants...
February 2024: Parasite Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38384176/expression-of-toll-like-receptors-and-host-defence-peptides-in-the-cecum-of-chicken-challenged-with-eimeria-tenella
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Song Wang, Danni Wang, Yilin Bai, Guijie Zheng, Yanhui Han, Lei Wang, Jianhe Hu, Huili Zhu, Yueyu Bai
Chicken coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria protozoa, affects poultry farming. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and host defence peptides (HDPs) help host innate immune responses to eliminate invading pathogens, but their roles in Eimeria tenella infection remain poorly understood. Herein, 14-day-old chickens were treated orally with 50,000 E. tenella oocysts and the cecum was dissected at different timepoints. mRNA expression of 10 chicken TLRs (chTLRs) and five HDPs was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. chTLR7 and chTLR15 were upregulated significantly at 3 h post-infection while other chTLRs were downregulated (p < ...
February 2024: Parasite Immunology
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