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Parasite Immunology

Cajsa Classon, Xiaogang Feng, Liv Eidsmo, Susanne Nylén
Leishmania donovani exposure often results in subclinical infection in immunocompetent individuals, and the factors dictating development of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are not known. Infection with intestinal worms skew immunity towards type 2 and regulatory responses, thereby theoretically increases susceptibility to intracellular infections controlled by type 1 responses. Here we tested how chronic infection with the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus affected immunity to a secondary infection with L...
February 11, 2019: Parasite Immunology
Maria A Pereira, Graça Alexandre-Pires, Margarida Câmara, Marcos Santos, Catarina Martins, Armanda Rodrigues, Jéssica Adriana, Luiz Felipe D Passero, Isabel Pereira da Fonseca, Gabriela Santos-Gomes
Leishmania infantum is the etiological agent of human visceral leishmaniosis and canine leishmaniosis, both systemic and potentially fatal diseases. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the first cells to phagocyte this parasite at the inoculation site, but macrophages (MØ) are the definitive host cells, ensuring parasite replication. The interaction between dog MØ, PMN, and L. infantum promastigotes was in vitro investigated. It was observed that promastigotes establish contact with blood monocyte-derived MØ (BMDM) mainly by the tip of the flagellum...
February 8, 2019: Parasite Immunology
Vega Zamora, Marta Rodero, Juan Carlos Andreu-Ballester, Susana Mendez, Carmen Cuéllar
AIMS: The objective of this work is to investigate if A. simplex larval antigens present immunomodulatory properties by the induction of tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) from two strains of mice (BALB/c and C57BL/6J). METHODS AND RESULTS: We used mouse bone marrow derived DCs. We determined their antigen-presenting ability by expression of membrane markers (MHC I and MHC II, CD80, CD86) and intracellular expression levels of IL-10 and IL-12 cytokines. We also analyzed whether stimulation with A...
February 5, 2019: Parasite Immunology
Najwa Najjar, Eliza R McColl, Andrea Weckman, Kevin C Kain, Micheline Piquette-Miller
AIMS: Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) alters the expression of ABC efflux transporters in maternal and fetal tissues, as well as the placenta. Malaria induces oxidative stress and pregnancy is associated with arginine deficiency. We hypothesized that reducing oxidative stress during MiP by L-arginine supplementation, a NO precursor, would attenuate transcriptional changes in a second superfamily of transporters, SLC transporters, and improve pregnancy outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pregnant BALB/c mice receiving L-arginine (1...
January 31, 2019: Parasite Immunology
Flora Suzane Parente Maia, José Elivalto Guimarães Campelo, José Lindemberg Rocha Sarmento, Caio Santos Silva, José Ribamar Felipe Marques, Francisco Arimatéia Santos Alves, Rafaelle Casseb Guimarães, Ednaldo Silva Filho
This study's purpose was to identify polymorphisms (SNP) in the goat β-defensin 1 gene, and to associate these SNPs with traits related to nematodean and protozoan infections in Anglo-Nubian goats from semiarid region of Brazil. 184 animals were used for DNA extraction, PCR and DNA automatic sequencing. The association analyses included the fixed effects of animal age, bloodline, and genotype of the SNP marker in the statistical model. The means of genotypes were compared by the Fisher test (P<0.05). Twelve polymorphism genotypes were found: two in intron 1, seven in exon 2 and three in 3' untranslated region...
December 24, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Antonella Cano, Antonella Mattana, Fiona L Henriquez, James Alexander, Craig W Roberts
AIM: Acanthamoeba infections are characterized by an intense localized innate immune response associated with an influx of macrophages. Acanthamoeba protease production is known to affect virulence. Herein, the ability of Acanthamoeba trophozoite proteases, of either the laboratory Neff strain, or a recently isolated clinical strain, to stimulate IL-12 and IL-6 and to activate protease-activated receptors, PAR1 and PAR2 expressed on murine macrophages, was investigated. METHOD AND RESULTS: Using selected protease inhibitors, leupeptin and E64, we showed that Acanthamoeba proteases can stimulate IL-12 and IL-6 by murine macrophages...
December 21, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Parvathy Rajan, Prasanta K K Mishra, Paritosh Joshi
Haemonchus contortus is an economically important parasite that survives the host defense system by modulating the immune response. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is secreted by the parasite and the host responds by producing anti-enzyme antibodies. The enzyme inhibits complement cascade, an arm of the innate immunity, by binding to complement C3. In this study, the C3 binding site and the antigenic region of the enzyme were identified by generating short recombinant fragments and deleting a defined region of the enzyme...
December 12, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Omar A Alfituri, Olumide Ajibola, James M Brewer, Paul Garside, Robert A Benson, Tamlyn Peel, Liam J Morrison, Neil A Mabbott
African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei spp.) are extracellular, hemoflagellate, protozoan parasites. Mammalian infection begins when the tsetse fly vector injects trypanosomes into the skin during blood feeding. The trypanosomes then reach the draining lymph nodes before disseminating systemically. Intravital imaging of the skin post-tsetse fly bite revealed that trypanosomes were observed both extravascularly and intravascularly in the lymphatic vessels. Whether host-derived cues play a role in the attraction of the trypanosomes towards the lymphatic vessels to aid their dissemination from the site of infection is not known...
December 7, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Maria Maricela Carrasco-Yepez, Arturo Contis-Montes de Oca, Rafael Campos-Rodriguez, Diana Falcon-Acosta, Judith Pacheco-Yepez, Itzel Berenice Rodriguez-Mera, Patricia Bonilla-Lemus, Erika Rosales-Cruz, Israel Lopez-Reyes, Saul Rojas-Hernandez
Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba, which is able to infect humans through the nasal mucosa causing a disease in the central nervous system known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) play a critical role in the early phase of N. fowleri infection. Recently, a new biological defense mechanism called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) has been attracting attention. These structures represent an important strategy to immobilize and kill invading microorganisms...
December 7, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Mariana Diupotex, María Berenice Martínez-Salazar, Alma Reyna Escalona-Montaño, Jaime Zamora-Chimal, Norma Salaiza-Suazo, Adriana Ruiz-Remigio, Abigail Roldán-Salgado, María Magdalena Aguirre-García, Santiago Martínez-Calvillo, Paul Gaytán, Ingeborg Becker
Parasites have been engineered to express fluorescent reporter proteins, yet the impact of red fluorescent proteins on Leishmania infections remains largely unknown. We analyzed the infection outcome of L. mexicana parasites engineered for the constitutive expression of mKate protein and evaluated their immunogenicity in BALB/c mice. Infection of BALB/c mice with mKate transfected L. mexicana (LmexmKate ) parasites caused enlarged lesion sizes, leading to ulceration, and containing more parasites, as compared to LmexWT ...
November 30, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Eleanor M Riley, Richard K Grencis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Parasite Immunology
Jesica R Jacobs, Scott P Greiner, Scott A Bowdridge
Reduced worm burden in St. Croix (STC) sheep during Haemonchus contortus (Hc) infection is predicated on rapid interleukin-4 (IL-4) signalling and T helper type 2 immune (Th2) response. The aim of these studies was to further elucidate differences in Th2 responses by STC and Suffolk (SUF) sheep. Ten days after challenge Hc infection, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected and cultured with larval (HcLA) and adult worm (HcWA) antigen. STC PBMC produced nearly twice as much IL-4 as SUF (823...
December 2018: Parasite Immunology
Junhua Wang, Fadi Jebbawi, Anne-Pauline Bellanger, Guido Beldi, Laurence Millon, Bruno Gottstein
The growth potential of the tumour-like Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode (causing alveolar echinococcosis, AE) is directly dependent upon the nature/function of the periparasitic adaptive host immune-mediated processes. PD-1/PD-L1 pathway (programmed cell death 1), which inhibits lymphocytic proliferation in tumour development, is over-expressed at the chronic stage of AE. We tested the impact of a PD-1/PD-L1 pathway blockade on the outcome of both chronic AE (intraperitoneal metacestode inoculation, secondary AE and SAE) and acute AE (peroral egg infection, primary AE and PAE)...
December 2018: Parasite Immunology
Dimpu Gogoi, Dipankar Biswas, Biswajyoti Borkakoty, Jagadish Mahanta
Gamma delta (γδ) T cells exhibit potent anti-Plasmodium activity but are also implicated in the immunopathology of malaria. It is currently poorly understood how γδ T cells are affected in human suffering from Plasmodium vivax infection or in symptomless individuals living in an endemic region. We examined both the percentages and expression of markers associated with immune exhaustion in γδ T cells in individuals living in a P. vivax endemic region by flow cytometry. The percentage of γδ T cells in the blood was significantly higher both in acute P...
December 2018: Parasite Immunology
Micássio Fernandes de Andrade, Valéria Duarte de Almeida, Lara Michelly Soares de Souza, Dayane Carla Costa Paiva, Cléber de Mesquita Andrade, Thales Allyrio Araújo de Medeiros Fernandes
Chagas disease (CD) is a public health problem in Latin America. The acute phase presents nonspecific symptoms and most patients recover from acute parasitemia and undergo a prolonged asymptomatic phase. Several years later, about 30% of infected individuals develop chronic cardiopathy with progressive cardiomegaly, arrhythmia, thromboembolic events and heart failure. These symptoms suggest a persistent association with the presence of inflammatory infiltrate and tissue, and cellular destruction in the heart muscle...
December 2018: Parasite Immunology
Moses Egesa, Lawrence Lubyayi, Frances M Jones, Angela van Diepen, Iain W Chalmers, Edridah M Tukahebwa, Bernard S Bagaya, Cornelis H Hokke, Karl F Hoffmann, David W Dunne, Alison M Elliott, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Shona Wilson, Stephen Cose
While antigens from Schistosoma schistosomula have been suggested as potential vaccine candidates, the association between antibody responses with schistosomula antigens and infection intensity at reinfection is not well known. Schistosoma mansoni-infected individuals were recruited from a schistosomiasis endemic area in Uganda (n = 372), treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel (PZQ) and followed up at five weeks and at one year post-treatment. Pre-treatment and five weeks post-treatment immunoglobulin (Ig) E, IgG1 and IgG4 levels against recombinant schistosomula antigens rSmKK7, rSmLy6A, rSmLy6B and rSmTSP7 were measured using ELISA...
December 2018: Parasite Immunology
Moses Egesa, Lawrence Lubyayi, Edridah M Tukahebwa, Bernard S Bagaya, Iain W Chalmers, Shona Wilson, Cornelis H Hokke, Karl F Hoffmann, David W Dunne, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Lucja A Labuda, Stephen Cose
Larvae of Schistosoma (schistosomula) are highly susceptible to host immune responses and are attractive prophylactic vaccine targets, although cellular immune responses against schistosomula antigens in endemic human populations are not well characterized. We collected blood and stool from 54 Schistosoma mansoni-infected Ugandans, isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated them for 24 hours with schistosome adult worm and soluble egg antigens (AWA and SEA), along with schistosomula recombinant proteins rSmKK7, Lymphocyte Antigen 6 isoforms (rSmLy6A and rSmLy6B), tetraspanin isoforms (rSmTSP6 and rSmTSP7)...
December 2018: Parasite Immunology
Maryam Heidari-Kharaji, Vahid Fallah-Omrani, Alireza Badirzadeh, Behnam Mohammadi-Ghalehbin, Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Leila Masoori, Hossein Montakhab-Yeganeh, Mehrak Zare
This is the first study aiming to determine the therapeutic effects of the S. ebulus aquatic extract as an antileishmanial herbal drug and evaluate the immune responses in L. major infected BALB/c mice. The antileishmanial activity of S. ebulus aquatic extract was evaluated using MTT test as well as Parasite Rescue and Transformation Assay. Footpad swelling and parasite load of infected mice were measured by several techniques. The immune responses were evaluated by measuring the levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, nitric oxide, and arginase...
November 25, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Margarida Borges, Tânia Magalhães Silva, Carina Brito, Natércia Teixeira, Craig W Roberts
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite which, depending on the geographical location, can infect between 10% and 90% of humans. Infection during pregnancy may result in congenital toxoplasmosis. The effects on the foetus vary depending on the stage of gestation in which primary maternal infection arises. A large body of research has focused on understanding immune response to toxoplasmosis, although few studies have addressed how it is affected by pregnancy or the pathological consequences of infection at the maternal-foetal interface...
November 24, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Mizuho Fukushige, Francisca Mutapi, Mark E J Woolhouse
AIMS: Previous studies have reported that chemotherapy of schistosomiasis by praziquantel in humans boosts protective antibody responses against S. mansoni and S. haematobium. A number of studies have reported schistosome-specific antibody levels before and after chemotherapy. Using these reports, a meta-analysis was conducted to identify predictors of population level change in schistosome-specific antibody levels after chemotherapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Following a systematic review, 92 observations from 26 articles published between 1988-2013 were included in this study...
November 22, 2018: Parasite Immunology
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