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Neurological Research

Yu Ji, Christopher Stone, Longfei Guan, Changya Peng, Wei Han
INTRODUCTION: Fine particle pollution, including diesel exhaust particles (DEP), is a well-recognized and significant threat to public health. Cerebrovascular disease has been shown to be among the pathologies produced by fine particle exposure, and is thought to arise in this context through oxidative and inflammatory mechanisms. The manner by which these mechanisms interface with normal cerebral metabolism in their promotion of cerebrovascular pathogenesis, however, remains to be elucidated...
May 17, 2019: Neurological Research
Yuequan Zhu, Eric Allen Klomparens, Sichao Guo, Xiaokun Geng
OBJECTIVES: Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of permanent disability worldwide. Inflammation has been reported to play an important role in the progression of CVD. Neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression are associated with increased incidence of CVD epidemiologically, although the mechanisms underlying this association are not clear. In this study, we assessed the effect of the acute repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) and chronic restraint stress (CRS) on neuroinflammation in mice...
May 16, 2019: Neurological Research
Hongyu Li, Ning Zhu, Eric A Klomparens, Shu Xu, Man Wang, Qiang Wang, Jing Wang, Luping Song
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the neural mechanism of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the treatment of post-stroke depression (PSD) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). METHODS: Twenty-six patients with PSD were randomly divided into an experimental group receiving tDCS and a control group receiving sham stimulation. The anode and cathode were placed on the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Patients underwent fNIRS before and after treatment, combined with an emotional face sex judgment task and a '1-back' working memory task to assess reaction times and relative concentration changes of oxyhemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) in the PFC...
May 16, 2019: Neurological Research
Hongsheng Liang, Lin Xu, Aili Gao, Yongxiang Shao, Shanshan Yang, Zhenfeng Jiang, Wei Ma, Shiyi Zhu, Tie Lin, Xiangtong Zhang
Objectives-Elevated protein O-GlcNAcylation could benefit cell survival and promote organ functional recovery. Thiamet-G (O-GlcNAcase inhibitor) could upregulate protein O-GlcNAcylation level to improve dyskinesia in models of neurodegenerative diseases without any obvious detrimental side-effects. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate the effects of protein O-GlcNAcylation upregulation by Thiamet-G on the spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. Methods-We randomly assigned 74 rats to three groups: sham-operated group (Sham) with no lesion (n = 22), injured control group (SCI+SS) with saline solution (n = 26), and Thiamet-G treated group (SCI+Thiamet-G) (n = 26)...
May 16, 2019: Neurological Research
Nirmeen A Kishk, Amani M Nawito, Asmaa M Ebraheim, Haytham Rizk
OBJECTIVE: Sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) is a sleep-related focal epilepsy which is often misdiagnosed. Despite active pharmacological therapy in the management of this disorder, satisfactory seizure control still cannot be achieved. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify this disorder among people who were seeking medical advice at Cairo University Epilepsy Unit (CUEU), characterizing its clinical, electroencephalographic and imaging features besides identifying possible indicators of inadequate seizure control on drug-therapy...
May 13, 2019: Neurological Research
Ryosuke Tashiro, Miki Fujimura, Hiroyuki Sakata, Hidenori Endo, Yasutake Tomata, Mika Sato-Maeda, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Teiji Tominaga
BACKGROUND: Intracranial vertebral artery dissection (VAD) and moyamoya disease (MMD) are rare cerebrovascular diseases, both of which have an ethnic predominance in the East Asian population. Disruption of the internal elastic lamina and subsequent rupture of the medial layer result in intracranial VAD. MMD is a chronic occlusive cerebrovascular disease of unknown etiology, in which the medial layer and internal elastic lamina of the intracranial arteries are significantly compromised...
May 7, 2019: Neurological Research
Kun Cheng Liu, Yuan Guo, Jin Zhang, Li Chen, Yi Wei Liu, Shu Xuan Lv, Wen Xie, Hui Sheng Wang, Yu Ming Zhang, Li Zhang
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effect of serotonin6 (5-HT6 ) receptors in the dorsal hippocampus (dHip) on the regulation of Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated anxiety. METHODS: We examined whether intra-dHip injection of both 5-HT6 receptor agonist and antagonist was involved in the regulation of anxiety-like behaviors in sham-operated rats and rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the medial forebrain bundle by the open-field and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests...
May 6, 2019: Neurological Research
Youngjae Chun, Yanfei Chen, Moataz Elsisy, Joseph Sukinik, Puneeth Shridhar, Jun-Kyu Park, Yong Bae Kim, Chang-Ki Hong, Joonho Chung
OBJECTIVES: Neurovascular compression syndromes (NVCS) could be cured with an intravascular device that releases compression of the root entry zone of cranial nerves by changing the course of offending vessels. The purpose of this study was to report our results of in vitro and in vivo experiments with a novel intra-arterial neurovascular decompressor (IA-NVD) for NVCS. METHODS: A nitinol-based IA-NVD was developed to release pressure applied to the root entry zone of cranial nerves by changing the course or angle of an offending vessel, which can possibly cure NVCS...
May 2, 2019: Neurological Research
Kwang-Chun Cho, Pyoung Jeon, Byung Moon Kim, Soo Mee Lim, Woo Sang Jung, Jung-Jae Kim, Sang Hyun Suh
OBJECTIVES: Basilar artery trunk aneurysms (BTAs) are a rare pathology and difficult to treat. We present our experience regarding angiographic results and clinical outcomes for 16 BTAs treated by reconstructive endovascular treatment (EVT) using stent or balloon. METHODS: Between January 2003 and December 2014, 15 patients (mean age, 58.6 years; 11 males) with 16 BTAs were enrolled. Clinical manifestation, outcomes and procedural complications were evaluated retrospectively, and follow-up angiography was performed 12 and 24 months after procedure...
May 2, 2019: Neurological Research
Huajun Yang, Wei Shan, Fei Zhu, Tingting Yu, Jingjing Fan, Anchen Guo, Fei Li, Xiaofeng Yang, Qun Wang
PURPOSE: To confirm different local brain activities characterized in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure model. METHODS: we induced seizure response by a single dose of PTZ injection (45 mg/kg, i.p.). Local activity was recorded in different brain regions by EEG in time and c-Fos staining at different time points (0.5 h, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h) after PTZ treatment. RESULTS: EEG recordings showed distinctive features of activation in different brain areas...
April 30, 2019: Neurological Research
Hamidreza Saber, Melek Somai, Gary B Rajah, Fabien Scalzo, David S Liebeskind
Advances in predictive analytics and machine learning supported by an ever-increasing wealth of data and processing power are transforming almost every industry. Accuracy and precision of predictive analytics have significantly increased over the past few years and are evolving at an exponential pace. There have been significant breakthroughs in using Predictive Analytics in healthcare where it is held as the foundation of precision medicine. Yet, although the research in the field is expanding with the profuse volume of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care...
April 30, 2019: Neurological Research
Yan-Xun Li, Xiao-Yan Jiang, Christopher Stone, Ya-Jun Ma, Qian Liu, Zhi-Hao Hu, Xiao-Dong Li, Xiao-Feng Wang, Shu-Juan Li
OBJECTIVE: To develop a physical- cognitive scale for assessment of frailty and compare the clinical features between the new scale and the conventional Fried criteria. METHODS: 1757 individuals aged 70-84 were analyzed. Participants reporting three or more Fried phenotypes were grouped as frail patients (FP) whereas others as non-frail (NF). A score of Hasegawa's dementia scale (HDS-R) higher than 21.5 were classified as non-cognitive impairment group (NCI) group...
April 28, 2019: Neurological Research
Yun Han, Gary B Rajah, Mohammed Hussain, Xiaokun Geng
The damage caused by ischemic stroke is mostly refractory to medical therapies and amounts to a substantial degree of mortality and morbidity in the world. The core tenet of treatment for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is to save 'reversible' ischemic tissue (ischemic penumbra) as quickly as possible within a limited therapeutic time window. The neuroprotective effect of hypothermia has been proven previously in a large number of animal experiments and clinical trials. Some of these animal and human studies have shown that pre-reperfusion hypothermia can reduce myocardial infarction and improve clinical outcomes...
April 28, 2019: Neurological Research
Haomeng Zhu, Xiaokun Geng, Gary B Rajah, Paul Fu, Huishan Du
OBJECTIVE: Transcranial doppler ultrasonography (TCD) is one of the few tools in the Neurological Intensive Care Unit (NICU) that allows for real-time monitoring of cerebral blood flow while also being non-invasive. This review examines the current use of TCD monitoring in the NICU. METHOD: We completed a literature review using Google Scholar and Pubmed. Relevant articles were included in this review. RESULTS: The role of TCD in the NICU continues to evolve since its infancy in the 1980s...
April 28, 2019: Neurological Research
Lixia Li, Peng Guo, Duyu Ding, Tenghong Lian, Lijun Zuo, Fenghe Du, Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate clinical symptoms and blood pressure (BP) characteristics in Parkinson's disease (PD) with orthostatic hypotension (OH), and to figure out the influencing factors of PD with OH (PD-OH). METHODS: Total 150 PD patients were divided into PD-OH and PD with no OH (PD-NOH) groups based on BP value. Series of scales were used to evaluate clinical symptoms. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory BP monitoring was adopted. RESULTS: Total 49 PD patients (32...
April 28, 2019: Neurological Research
Yong Zhang, Gary B Rajah, Peng Liu, Yujie Sun, Tonghui Liu, Xin Li, Zhongrong Miao, Guangwen Li
OBJECTIVES: To compare the technical and 1-year outcomes of balloon-mounted versus self-expanding stents for symptomatic intracranial vertebrobasilar artery stenosis. METHODS: 167 patients with severe intracranial vertebrobasilar artery atherosclerotic stenosis with poor collaterals were enrolled. Both balloon-mounted stenting and self-expanding stent placement were selected to treat patients. The baseline characteristics, cerebral angiography and clinical follow-up were assessed between the two groups...
April 28, 2019: Neurological Research
Yinhao Violet Wu, Junhan Liu, Ziying Chen, W Mcintyre Burnham
INTRODUCTION: We have been exploring the effects of dihydroprogesterone in female amygdala-kindled rats. For intraperitoneal (i.p.) time-response studies, we used a vehicle containing the common solvent, benzyl alcohol (BnOH). The vehicle containing BnOH was also tested alone as a control. METHOD AND RESULTS: Unexpectedly, it was found that the vehicle containing BnOH had clear-cut anti-seizure effects in the kindling model, with an ED50 of 100 mg/kg. In a follow-up study, dose- and time-response studies of i...
April 26, 2019: Neurological Research
Maged Abdel Naseer, Shereen Fathi, Nagwa K Roshdy, Dalia M Labib, Dalia H Khalil, Walaa Ibrahim, Rehab Magdy
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cognitive dysfunction, neurodegeneration, and genetic factors among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS: Fifty patients of definite MS were included. Physical disability was assessed by expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Cognitive functions were assessed by using the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS). For each eye, optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to track thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell complex (GCC), respecting the previous history of optic neuritis (ON)...
April 26, 2019: Neurological Research
Weiliang He, Xiaochao Tian, Bilin Yuan, Bao Chu, Fan Gao, Hebo Wang
OBJECTIVES: Neurite outgrowth of neurons is essential for forming functional neural circuits. It is believed that neuronal neurite outgrowth is an important mechanism of brain plasticity. Rosuvastatin (RSV) is a relatively new statin and may have neuroprotective properties. However, whether RSV exerts an effect on neurite extension and its potential mechanism in cortical neurons remains poorly documented. METHODS: Immunofluorescence method was used to examine the effect of RSV on neurite outgrowth in primary cortical neuron by measuring neurite length and confirmed the promotion effect...
April 25, 2019: Neurological Research
Mei-Ying Zhao, Gui-Qing Wang, Ni-Ni Wang, Qiao-Yan Yu, Rong-Li Liu, Wen-Qian Shi
OBJECTIVES: Long-non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been involved in central nervous system recently. A number of studies have reported that lncRNA NEAT1 exerts critical roles in neurodegenerative disorder. Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) has been reported to exert function in the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ). Moreover, BACE1 acts as a target of miR-124 in the progression of AD. So far, the biological role and underlying mechanisms of NEAT1 and miR-124 in AD remains elusive...
April 23, 2019: Neurological Research
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