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Neurological Research | Page 2

Giulia Bivona, Caterina Maria Gambino, Giorgia Iacolino, Marcello Ciaccio
Objective : to summarise the activities that Vitamin D (VD) carries out in the brain and to clarify the potential role of VD in neurological diseases. Methods : a literature research has been performed in Pubmed using the following keywords: 'Vitamin D', 'nervous system', 'brain'. Results : the studies reviewed show that VD contributes to cerebral activity in both embryonic and adult brain, helping the connectivity of neural circuits responsible for locomotor, emotional and reward-dependent behavior. Low VD serum levels have been found in patients affected by Alzheimer Disease, Parkinson Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Autism Spectrum Disorders, Sleep Disorders and Schizophrenia...
May 30, 2019: Neurological Research
Adem Aslan, Arda Aydogmus, Mehmet Gazi Boyaci, Mehmet Emin Buyukokuroglu, Korhan Altunbas, Ibrahim Keles, Fevzullah Akyuz
Objectives :Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant clinical problem with numerous secondary complications and perpetual deficits. No potent treatment is currently available to fully repair motor and other neurological functions. We studied the effects of dantrolene (DNT) at different time points, on the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and the apoptosis response in spinal cord injury. Methods :The study was conducted on a total of 38 rabbits divided into five main groups.These were group 1 (sham): only laminectomy (n = 6), group 2 (SCI): laminectomy and traumatic SCI (n = 8), group 3 (DNT 0h): just after the SCI, DNT 10 mg/kg I...
May 30, 2019: Neurological Research
Lifeng Wang, Xiaofen He
Objective : Previous studies have demonstrated a strong association between carotid artery stenosis (CAS) and coronary artery stenosis disease (COAS). However, prior evaluated methods are non-invasive examinations. This study was aimed to access the relationship between CAS and COAS by the means of angiography. Methods : This is a single-center, retrospectively reviewed study based on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of carotid artery and coronary artery angiography (CAG). We collected a total of 231 patients undergoing DSA and CAG at the same-day between June 2013 and May 2015...
May 26, 2019: Neurological Research
Haomeng Zhu, Xiaokun Geng, Gary B Rajah, Paul Fu, Huishan Du
Objective: Transcranial doppler ultrasonography (TCD) is one of the few tools in the Neurological Intensive Care Unit (NICU) that allows for real-time monitoring of cerebral blood flow while also being non-invasive. This review examines the current use of TCD monitoring in the NICU. Method: We completed a literature review using Google Scholar and Pubmed. Relevant articles were included in this review. Results: The role of TCD in the NICU continues to evolve since its infancy in the 1980s. TCD use is now standard of care of for some neurological maladies...
August 2019: Neurological Research
Flavia Turcato, Cayo Almeida, Clarissa Mota, Ricardo Kusuda, Andrea Carvalho, Glauce C Nascimento, Sonia Zanon, Christie R Leite-Panissi, Guilherme Lucas
Objective: Animal models of chronic pain have demonstrated that glial cells are promising target for development of analgesic drugs. However, preclinical studies on glial response under chronic pain conditions vary depending on the cellular markers, the species used, the experimental design and model. Therefore, we investigate the expression profile of GFAP and Iba-1 during the behavioral manifestation of sensory disorder in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Methods: the expression profile of fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba-1) were quantitated in the spinal dorsal horn of Balb/C mice submitted to six models of chronic pain...
July 2019: Neurological Research
Fei Li, Qian-Xue Chen, Bo Peng, Yan Chen, Tao Yao, Guan Wang
OBJECTIVE: Microalbuminuria could be detected in patients with acute stroke. However, the association between microalbuminuria and the severity of ischemic stroke has not been systematically investigated. This study aimed to systematically explore the prevalence of microalbuminuria in ischemic stroke patients, and the association of microalbuminuria with the severity of ischemic stroke, as well as the prognostic value of microalbuminuria in cerebral infarction patients. METHODS: 160 ischemic stroke patients and 54 controls were enrolled and clinical characteristics were recorded...
June 2019: Neurological Research
Gaowei Li, Linjun Cai, Liangxue Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Chordoma is a rare tumor with a certain rate of distant metastasis. Skull base and sacrum are the two most common origin sites. This study tends to identify key differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between classical clival and sacral chordomas, provide new targets for future treatment options of chordomas. METHODS: The gene expression profiles of GSE95084 and GSE68497 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database and were analyzed using the limma R package...
June 2019: Neurological Research
Yu Ji, Christopher Stone, Longfei Guan, Changya Peng, Wei Han
INTRODUCTION: Fine particle pollution, including diesel exhaust particles (DEP), is a well-recognized and significant threat to public health. Cerebrovascular disease has been shown to be among the pathologies produced by fine particle exposure, and is thought to arise in this context through oxidative and inflammatory mechanisms. The manner by which these mechanisms interface with normal cerebral metabolism in their promotion of cerebrovascular pathogenesis, however, remains to be elucidated...
May 17, 2019: Neurological Research
Yuequan Zhu, Eric Allen Klomparens, Sichao Guo, Xiaokun Geng
OBJECTIVES: Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of permanent disability worldwide. Inflammation has been reported to play an important role in the progression of CVD. Neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression are associated with increased incidence of CVD epidemiologically, although the mechanisms underlying this association are not clear. In this study, we assessed the effect of the acute repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) and chronic restraint stress (CRS) on neuroinflammation in mice...
May 16, 2019: Neurological Research
Hongyu Li, Ning Zhu, Eric A Klomparens, Shu Xu, Man Wang, Qiang Wang, Jing Wang, Luping Song
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the neural mechanism of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the treatment of post-stroke depression (PSD) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). METHODS: Twenty-six patients with PSD were randomly divided into an experimental group receiving tDCS and a control group receiving sham stimulation. The anode and cathode were placed on the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Patients underwent fNIRS before and after treatment, combined with an emotional face sex judgment task and a '1-back' working memory task to assess reaction times and relative concentration changes of oxyhemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) in the PFC...
May 16, 2019: Neurological Research
Hongsheng Liang, Lin Xu, Aili Gao, Yongxiang Shao, Shanshan Yang, Zhenfeng Jiang, Wei Ma, Shiyi Zhu, Tie Lin, Xiangtong Zhang
Objectives-Elevated protein O-GlcNAcylation could benefit cell survival and promote organ functional recovery. Thiamet-G (O-GlcNAcase inhibitor) could upregulate protein O-GlcNAcylation level to improve dyskinesia in models of neurodegenerative diseases without any obvious detrimental side-effects. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate the effects of protein O-GlcNAcylation upregulation by Thiamet-G on the spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. Methods-We randomly assigned 74 rats to three groups: sham-operated group (Sham) with no lesion (n = 22), injured control group (SCI+SS) with saline solution (n = 26), and Thiamet-G treated group (SCI+Thiamet-G) (n = 26)...
May 16, 2019: Neurological Research
Nirmeen A Kishk, Amani M Nawito, Asmaa M Ebraheim, Haytham Rizk
OBJECTIVE: Sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) is a sleep-related focal epilepsy which is often misdiagnosed. Despite active pharmacological therapy in the management of this disorder, satisfactory seizure control still cannot be achieved. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify this disorder among people who were seeking medical advice at Cairo University Epilepsy Unit (CUEU), characterizing its clinical, electroencephalographic and imaging features besides identifying possible indicators of inadequate seizure control on drug-therapy...
May 13, 2019: Neurological Research
Ryosuke Tashiro, Miki Fujimura, Hiroyuki Sakata, Hidenori Endo, Yasutake Tomata, Mika Sato-Maeda, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Teiji Tominaga
BACKGROUND: Intracranial vertebral artery dissection (VAD) and moyamoya disease (MMD) are rare cerebrovascular diseases, both of which have an ethnic predominance in the East Asian population. Disruption of the internal elastic lamina and subsequent rupture of the medial layer result in intracranial VAD. MMD is a chronic occlusive cerebrovascular disease of unknown etiology, in which the medial layer and internal elastic lamina of the intracranial arteries are significantly compromised...
May 7, 2019: Neurological Research
Kun Cheng Liu, Yuan Guo, Jin Zhang, Li Chen, Yi Wei Liu, Shu Xuan Lv, Wen Xie, Hui Sheng Wang, Yu Ming Zhang, Li Zhang
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effect of serotonin6 (5-HT6 ) receptors in the dorsal hippocampus (dHip) on the regulation of Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated anxiety. METHODS: We examined whether intra-dHip injection of both 5-HT6 receptor agonist and antagonist was involved in the regulation of anxiety-like behaviors in sham-operated rats and rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the medial forebrain bundle by the open-field and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests...
May 6, 2019: Neurological Research
Youngjae Chun, Yanfei Chen, Moataz Elsisy, Joseph Sukinik, Puneeth Shridhar, Jun-Kyu Park, Yong Bae Kim, Chang-Ki Hong, Joonho Chung
OBJECTIVES: Neurovascular compression syndromes (NVCS) could be cured with an intravascular device that releases compression of the root entry zone of cranial nerves by changing the course of offending vessels. The purpose of this study was to report our results of in vitro and in vivo experiments with a novel intra-arterial neurovascular decompressor (IA-NVD) for NVCS. METHODS: A nitinol-based IA-NVD was developed to release pressure applied to the root entry zone of cranial nerves by changing the course or angle of an offending vessel, which can possibly cure NVCS...
May 2, 2019: Neurological Research
Kwang-Chun Cho, Pyoung Jeon, Byung Moon Kim, Soo Mee Lim, Woo Sang Jung, Jung-Jae Kim, Sang Hyun Suh
OBJECTIVES: Basilar artery trunk aneurysms (BTAs) are a rare pathology and difficult to treat. We present our experience regarding angiographic results and clinical outcomes for 16 BTAs treated by reconstructive endovascular treatment (EVT) using stent or balloon. METHODS: Between January 2003 and December 2014, 15 patients (mean age, 58.6 years; 11 males) with 16 BTAs were enrolled. Clinical manifestation, outcomes and procedural complications were evaluated retrospectively, and follow-up angiography was performed 12 and 24 months after procedure...
May 2, 2019: Neurological Research
Ming-Zhe Hu, An-Rong Wang, Ze-Yu Zhao, Xiang-Yan Chen, Yan-Bin Li, Bin Liu
BACKGROUND: Post-stroke depression (PSD) is one of the most prevalent emotional disorders after stroke and often results in poor outcomes. However, the underlying physiopathologic mechanism and effective treatment of PSD remain poorly elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether paeoniflorin has antidepressant-like activity in a rat model of PSD. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham-operated control (Sham), PSD, paeoniflorin (with PSD) and fluoxetine group(with PSD)...
May 2019: Neurological Research
Mehdi Goudarzi, Mohammad Amin Mombeini, Iman Fatemi, Azadeh Aminzadeh, Heibatullah Kalantari, Ali Nesari, Hossein Najafzadehvarzi, Saeed Mehrzadi
Acrylamide (ACR) is an environmental contaminant and a well-known neurotoxin. Ellagic acid (EA), a natural plant polyphenol, has shown a variety of beneficial effects. The present study was designed to explore whether EA could attenuate ACR-induced neurotoxicity in rats and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Animals were divided into five groups. Group 1 was treated with normal saline (2 mL/kg) for 30 days. Group 2 was treated with ACR (20 mg/kg, orally) for 30 days. Groups 3 and 4 were treated with ACR and EA (10 and 30 mg/kg, orally) for 30 days...
May 2019: Neurological Research
Huajun Yang, Wei Shan, Fei Zhu, Tingting Yu, Jingjing Fan, Anchen Guo, Fei Li, Xiaofeng Yang, Qun Wang
PURPOSE: To confirm different local brain activities characterized in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure model. METHODS: we induced seizure response by a single dose of PTZ injection (45 mg/kg, i.p.). Local activity was recorded in different brain regions by EEG in time and c-Fos staining at different time points (0.5 h, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h) after PTZ treatment. RESULTS: EEG recordings showed distinctive features of activation in different brain areas...
April 30, 2019: Neurological Research
Hamidreza Saber, Melek Somai, Gary B Rajah, Fabien Scalzo, David S Liebeskind
Advances in predictive analytics and machine learning supported by an ever-increasing wealth of data and processing power are transforming almost every industry. Accuracy and precision of predictive analytics have significantly increased over the past few years and are evolving at an exponential pace. There have been significant breakthroughs in using Predictive Analytics in healthcare where it is held as the foundation of precision medicine. Yet, although the research in the field is expanding with the profuse volume of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care...
April 30, 2019: Neurological Research
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