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Experimental Aging Research

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707658/frontal-lobe-functions-in-normal-aging-metacognition-autonomy-and-quality-of-life
#1
Cristina Calso, Jérémy Besnard, Philippe Allain
BACKGROUND: Starting from the "frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging", we aim to study the metacognitive functions (deception, reciprocity, cognitive and affective theory of mind), autonomy and quality of life in normal aging. METHODS: Eighty healthy subjects (30 young adults [YA] aged 20-40, 30 old adults [OA] aged 65-79 and 20 very old adults [VOA] aged 80 and over) participated in our study. Standard and novel neuropsychological tasks have been used, assessing abilities to understand others' mental and affective states, deceptive and cooperative situations...
February 1, 2019: Experimental Aging Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707652/memory-self-efficacy-and-beliefs-about-memory-and-aging-in-oldest-old-adults-in-the-louisiana-healthy-aging-study-lhas
#2
Katie E Cherry, Bethany A Lyon, Emily O Boudreaux, Alyse B Blanchard, Jason L Hicks, Emily M Elliott, Leann Myers, Sangkyu Kim, S Michal Jazwinski
Background/Study Context. Adaptation to normative age-related declines in memory is an important but understudied aspect of successful aging. The purpose of the present study was to shed new light on memory self-efficacy and beliefs about memory and aging as two integral aspects of adult cognition with relevance to successful aging. METHODS: Young (19 to 27 years) and community-dwelling older adults (60 to 94 years) from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS) completed an adapted Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ) which includes a memory self-efficacy subscale, the Memory Controllability Inventory (MCI), and the Aging Concerns Scale (ACS)...
February 1, 2019: Experimental Aging Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30702032/an-analysis-of-famous-person-semantic-memory-in-aging
#3
Aurélie Pistono, Thomas Busigny, Mélanie Jucla, Amélie Cabirol, Anne-Lucie Dinnat, Jérémie Pariente, Emmanuel J Barbeau
BACKGROUND: In contrast to most memory systems that decline with age, semantic memory tends to remain relatively stable across the life span. However, what exactly is stable remains unclear. Is it the quantity of information available or the organization of semantic memory, i.e., the connections between semantic items? Even less is known about semantic memory for celebrities, a subsystem of semantic memory. In the present study, we studied the organization of person-specific semantic memory and its stability in aging...
January 31, 2019: Experimental Aging Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30633644/efficiency-of-sensorimotor-networks-posture-and-gait-in-young-and-older-adults
#4
G Di Scala, M Dupuy, E Guillaud, E Doat, E Barse, B Dillhareguy, F A M Jean, M Audiffren, J R Cazalets, S Chanraud
Background/Study context: Posture and gait are complex sensorimotor functions affected by age. These difficulties are particularly apparent when performing cognitively demanding tasks. Characterizing the functional organization of brain networks involved in these associations remains a challenge because of the incompatibility of brain imagery techniques with gross body movements. The present study aimed at testing whether resting-state functional connectivity of sensorimotor networks is associated with posture and gait performance recorded offline, in young and older adults...
January 11, 2019: Experimental Aging Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30588858/the-effect-of-aging-on-memory-for-recent-and-remote-egocentric-and-allocentric-information
#5
Antonella Lopez, Alessandro O Caffò, Giuseppina Spano, Andrea Bosco
BACKGROUND: The present study explores recent and well-consolidated spatial memory within the egocentric and allocentric frames of reference in young and elderly people. METHODS: The research included young and old participants, within the range of normality. All the participants were tested on four spatial tasks requiring allocentric and egocentric judgments, based on recent as well as remote spatial information, using a Multivariate Regression Analysis. RESULTS: An age effect on both egocentric and allocentric tasks was present in recently learned spatial information...
December 27, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30585139/effects-of-question-framing-on-self-reported-memory-concerns-across-the-lifespan
#6
Andrée-Ann Cyr, Nicole D Anderson
Background/Study Context: Evidence regarding whether there is an age-related increase in subjective memory concerns is mixed. The goal of this study was to investigate whether calling to mind specific instances of memory failures affects the likelihood that individuals report being concerned about their memory. METHODS: Young, middle-aged, and older individuals responded to statements that probed general memory concerns (e.g., I am concerned about my memory) before or after probing the frequency of memory difficulties in specific everyday situations (e...
December 25, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30355180/the-role-of-illness-burden-in-theory-of-mind-performance-among-older-adults
#7
Laura C Walzak, Wendy Loken Thornton
Background/Study Context: Theory of Mind (ToM) reflects the ability to reason about mental states in order to understand and predict behavior. Research has identified links between increased pulse pressure, a measure of vascular health, and reduced cognitive ToM in older adults. However, the relationships between other vascular and nonvascular conditions and reduced ToM are unknown. We examined (1) illnesses as predictors of cognitive and affective ToM and (2) neurocognitive mediators of illness burden and ToM...
October 2018: Experimental Aging Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30355179/breathe-easy-speak-easy-pulmonary-function-and-language-performance-in-aging
#8
Dalia Cahana-Amitay, Lewina O Lee, Avron Spiro, Martin L Albert
BACKGROUND: This study explored the association between pulmonary function (PF) and older adults' language performance accuracy. Study rationale was anchored in aging research reporting PF as a reliable risk factor affecting cognition among the elderly. METHODS: 180 adult English native speakers aged 55 to 84 years participated in the study. PF was measured through forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC ratio (FFR)...
October 2018: Experimental Aging Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30355178/when-do-older-adults-show-a-positivity-effect-in-emotional-memory
#9
Clémence Joubert, Patrick S R Davidson, Hanna Chainay
BACKGROUND: Typically, positive and negative emotional items are easier to remember than neutral ones. Charles, Mather, and Carstensen (2003) reported that older adults preferentially remember positive items, but this age-related "positivity effect" has not been replicated consistently. METHODS: We conducted a close replication of Charles et al.'s study to verify that their method yields a clear positivity effect in older adults relative to the young. We also examined the role of attention, which has been argued to influence the presence of the positivity effect in older adults...
October 2018: Experimental Aging Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30300100/does-the-improvement-of-position-sense-following-motor-imagery-practice-vary-as-a-function-of-age-and-time-of-day
#10
Thomas Rulleau, Nicolas Robin, Amira Abou-Dest, David Chesnet, Lucette Toussaint
The effectiveness of motor imagery practice is known to depend on age and on the ability to form motor images. In the same individual, motor imagery quality changes during the day, being better late in the morning for older adults and in the afternoon for younger adults. Does this mean that motor imagery practice should be done at specific time of the day depending on the age of participants to maximize motor learning? To examine whether the effect of motor imagery practice varies as a function of time of day and age, the authors used an arm configuration reproduction task and measured position sense accuracy before and after 135 kinesthetic motor imagery trials...
October 2018: Experimental Aging Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30300080/drawing-as-an-encoding-tool-memorial-benefits-in-younger-and-older-adults
#11
Melissa E Meade, Jeffrey D Wammes, Myra A Fernandes
Background/Study Context. In a recent study, drawing pictures relative to writing words at encoding has been shown to benefit later memory performance in young adults. In the current study, we sought to test whether older adults' memory might also benefit from drawing as an encoding strategy. Our prediction was that drawing would serve as a particularly effective form of environmental support at encoding as it encourages a more detailed perceptual representation. METHODS: Participants were presented 30 nouns, one at a time, and asked to either draw a picture or repeatedly write out the word, which was followed by a free recall test for all words (Experiment 1)...
October 2018: Experimental Aging Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30285572/own-age-bias-and-positivity-effects-in-facial-recognition
#12
Benjamin Denkinger, Madeline Kinn
Background/Study Context - In the current study, we evaluated two age-related differences in recognition memory: the own-age bias, wherein older and younger adults best recognize those of their own age group, and an age-related positivity effect, wherein older adults recall positive emotional information better than negative information relative to younger adults. We sought to extend previous research that jointly investigated these variables in recognition memory. Methods - Younger (age 18 - 27) and older (age 62 - 80) adults completed an incidental encoding task on a sequence of 50 positive, negative, or neutrally valenced images of older and younger adult faces...
October 2018: Experimental Aging Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30273111/validity-reliability-and-diagnostic-accuracy-of-ratings-of-perceived-exertion-to-identify-dependence-in-performing-self-care-activities-in-older-women
#13
Douglas Martins de Souza, Paula Born Lopes, Samuele Maria Marcora, Robertson J Robertson, André Luiz Felix Rodacki, Fábio Y Nakamura, Gleber Pereira
BACKGROUND: Dependence in self-care activities among older women has been previously evaluated through performance-based tests. However, these tests have presented inability to accurately distinguish between dependent and independent older adults in performing activities of daily living. AIM: To examine the validity, reliability, and diagnostic accuracy of rating of perceived exertion (RPE) to identify dependence in performing self-care activities in older women...
October 2018: Experimental Aging Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29847218/age-dependent-reactivity-to-affective-images-evidence-for-variation-across-emotion-categories
#14
Mai Bjørnskov Mikkelsen, Mimi Mehlsen, Mia Skytte O'Toole
BACKGROUND: Research on the effect of age on affective reactivity continues to provide inconsistent findings. The present study addresses two potential explanations that may account for these inconsistencies. First, gender may moderate age differences in affective reactivity and second, age differences in affective reactivity may vary according to emotion category. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine age differences in reactions to emotion-inducing images when singling out the effect of gender and emotion category...
May 30, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29843564/age-related-changes-in-physical-and-perceptual-markers-of-recovery-following-high-intensity-interval-cycle-exercise
#15
Nattai R Borges, Peter R Reaburn, Thomas M Doering, Christos K Argus, Matthew W Driller
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare physical performance, perceptual and haematological markers of recovery in well-trained masters and young cyclists across 48 h following a bout of repeated high-intensity interval exercise. METHODS: Nine masters (mean ± SD; age = 55.6 ± 5.0 years) and eight young (age = 25.9 ± 3.0 years) cyclists performed a high-intensity interval exercise session consisting of 6 × 30 s intervals at 175% peak power output with 4...
May 29, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29787342/learning-facts-during-aging-the-benefits-of-curiosity
#16
Giulia Galli, Miroslav Sirota, Matthias J Gruber, Bianca Elena Ivanof, Janani Ganesh, Maurizio Materassi, Alistair Thorpe, Vanessa Loaiza, Marinella Cappelletti, Fergus I M Craik
Background/study context: Recent studies have shown that young adults better remember factual information they are curious about. It is not entirely clear, however, whether this effect is retained during aging. Here, the authors investigated curiosity-driven memory benefits in young and elderly individuals. METHODS: In two experiments, young (age range 18-26) and older (age range 65-89) adults read trivia questions and rated their curiosity to find out the answer. They also attended to task-irrelevant faces presented between the trivia question and the answer...
May 22, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29781777/influence-of-sex-stereotyped-stimuli-on-the-mental-rotation-performance-of-elderly-persons
#17
Martina Rahe, Vera Ruthsatz, Petra Jansen, Claudia Quaiser-Pohl
BACKGROUND: In mental-rotation tests with cube figures as rotational objects, differences in favor of men are often found (Voyer, Voyer, & Bryden, 1995). Mental-rotation performance often declines with age (Jacewicz & Hartley, 1987), but sex differences usually remain (Herman & Bruce, 1983). METHODS: In this study, male- and female-stereotyped objects were used as rotational stimuli in a mental-rotation paper and pencil test (Ruthsatz, Neuburger, Rahe, Jansen, & Quaiser-Pohl, 2017) for elderly participants (age: 57-88 years)...
May 21, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29781770/reduced-cognitive-capacity-impairs-the-malleability-of-older-adults-negative-attitudes-to-stigmatized-individuals
#18
Anne C Krendl
BACKGROUND: Although engaging explicit regulatory strategies may reduce negative bias toward outgroup members, these strategies are cognitively demanding and thus may not be effective for older adults (OA) who have reduced cognitive resources. The current study therefore examines whether individual differences in cognitive capacity disrupt OA' ability to explicitly regulate their bias to stigmatized individuals. METHODS: Young and OA were instructed to explicitly regulate their negative bias toward stigmatized individuals by using an explicit reappraisal strategy...
May 21, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29757108/cognitively-active-older-adults-comprehension-and-metacomprehension-of-negated-text
#19
Sara J Margolin
Background/Study context: Previous research has demonstrated that negated text is universally difficult to understand, and while readers are aware of the difficulty, they are not always able to direct this awareness to improve their comprehension of negation. The present research aimed to determine whether this holds true for older adults, even while maintaining good cognitive function through reading activity. METHODS: The study used an online paradigm, where young (age range 19-24) and older (age range 60-87) adults read passages, rated their comprehension, and answered questions about what they read...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29611796/theory-of-mind-and-the-ultimatum-game-in-healthy-adult-aging
#20
Alessandra Girardi, Sergio Della Sala, Sarah E MacPherson
BACKGROUND: The Ultimatum Game assesses decision-making involved in cooperative interactions with others. However, little is known about the role that the ability to understand other people's intentions plays in these interactions. METHODS: This study examined performance on the Ultimatum Game and theory of mind (ToM) tasks in younger and older adults. RESULTS: Age differences were not found on the ToM tasks, and a lack of variability in performance prevented analyses of the relationships between performance on the Ultimatum Game and ToM...
May 2018: Experimental Aging Research
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