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American Journal of Veterinary Research | Page 2

Fiona L Bateman, Shannon G M Kirejczyk, Georgina V Stewart, Daniel C Cutler, Laura L Quilling, Elizabeth W Howerth, Joerg Mayer
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an enrofloxacin-silver sulfadiazine emulsion (ESS) labeled for treatment of otitis externa in dogs has ototoxic effects in rabbits following myringotomy. ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult New Zealand White rabbits. PROCEDURES: Rabbits were anesthetized for brainstem auditory-evoked response (BAER) tests on day 0. Myringotomy was performed, and BAER testing was repeated. Saline (0.9% NaCl) solution and ESS were then instilled in the left and right middle ears, respectively, and BAER testing was repeated prior to recovery of rabbits from anesthesia...
April 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Stefano Oricco, Roberto Rabozzi, Caterina Meneghini, Paolo Franci
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of focused cardiac ultrasonography and selected echocardiographic variables for predicting fluid responsiveness in conscious, spontaneously breathing dogs with various clinical conditions. ANIMALS: 26 dogs (15 males and 11 females) with a median age of 84 months (range, 12 to 360 months) and median body weight of 8 kg (range, 2 to 35 kg) referred for various clinical conditions. PROCEDURES: Left ventricular end-diastolic internal diameter normalized to body weight (LVIDDn), left ventricular volume score (LVVS), left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (EDVI), aortic velocity time integral (VTIAo ), and aortic peak flow velocity (VmaxAo ) were echocardiographically measured before and after IV administration of a bolus of lactated Ringer solution (4 mL/kg) over a 1-minute period...
April 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Hannah E Visser, D Dustin Dees, Nicholas J Millichamp, Lucien V Vallone, Erin M Scott
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of orally administered melatonin on the intraocular pressure (IOP) of ophthalmologically normal dogs. ANIMALS: 20 ophthalmologically normal dogs (40 eyes). PROCEDURES: In a randomized crossover study, each dog received a 7-day regimen of melatonin (0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and a placebo (150 mg of lactose powder in a capsule, PO, q 12 h), with a 7-day washout period between treatment regimens. Rebound tonometry was used to measure the IOP in both eyes of each dog 5 times at 2-hour intervals on days 0 (before administration of the first dose), 2, 4, and 7 (after administration of the last dose) of each treatment period...
April 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Masahiro Tamura, Hiroshi Ohta, Khoirun Nisa, Tatsuyuki Osuga, Noboru Sasaki, Keitaro Morishita, Mitsuyoshi Takiguchi
OBJECTIVE: To assess liver and spleen stiffness in healthy dogs by use of a novel 2-D shear wave elastography (SWE) technique and to investigate the repeatability and reproducibility of the technique. ANIMALS: 8 healthy adult Beagles. PROCEDURES: 2-D SWE was performed on each dog to assess liver and spleen stiffness. Repeatability (intraday variability) and reproducibility (interday variability) of 2-D SWE were investigated. For all 8 dogs, 2-D SWE was performed 3 times in 1 day (4-hour intervals) and on 3 separate days (1-week interval)...
April 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Mari I Waterman, Jonathan A Abbott, Andrea Eriksson De Rezende, Jeffrey R Wilcke
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that once-daily oral administration of atenolol would attenuate the heart rate response to isoproterenol for 24 hours. ANIMALS 20 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted. Dogs were assigned to receive atenolol (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) or a placebo for 5 to 7 days. After a washout period of 7 days, dogs then received the other treatment. Heart rate at rest (HRr ) and heart rate induced by administration of isoproterenol (HRi ) as a constant rate infusion (0...
March 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Adam Auckburally, Tamara L Grubb, Maja Wiklund, Görel Nyman
OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of mechanical ventilation (MV) and perfusion conditions on the efficacy of pulse-delivered inhaled nitric oxide (PiNO) in anesthetized horses. ANIMALS 27 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES Anesthetized horses were allocated into 4 groups: spontaneous breathing (SB) with low (< 70 mm Hg) mean arterial blood pressure (MAP; group SB-L; n = 7), SB with physiologically normal (≥ 70 mm Hg) MAP (group SB-N; 8), MV with low MAP (group MV-L; 6), and MV with physiologically normal MAP (group MV-N; 6)...
March 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Brittany N Stevens, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Kathryn L Phillips, Alvin C Camus, Esteban Soto
OBJECTIVE To describe a technique for endoscopic evaluation of the coelomic viscera of koi (Cyprinus carpio) and to evaluate the ability to visually examine coelomic structures by use of an approach cranial or caudal to the pelvic girdle. ANIMALS 16 subadult koi. PROCEDURES Koi were anesthetized with buffered tricaine methanesulfonate. Coelioscopic examination was performed via a ventral midline incisional approach cranial or caudal to the pelvic girdle. A 2.7-mm × 18-cm 30° oblique endoscope within a 4.8-mm operating sheath and infusion of saline (0...
March 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Nina R Kieves, Juliette L Hart, Richard B Evans, Felix M Duerr
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of 3 walkway cover types on temporospatial and ground reaction force measurements of dogs during gait analysis with a pressure-sensitive walkway (PSW). ANIMALS 35 client- and staff-owned dogs (25 nonlame and 10 lame). PROCEDURES In a crossover study design, all dogs were evaluated at a comfortable walk on a PSW to which 3 cover types (a 0.32-cm-thick corrugated vinyl mat or a 0.32- or 0.64-cm-thick polyvinyl chloride yoga mat) were applied in random order. Temporospatial and ground reaction force measurements were obtained and compared among cover types within the nonlame and lame dog groups...
March 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Undine Christmann, R Duncan Hite, Sharon G Witonsky, Virginia A Buechner-Maxwell, Paul L Wood
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the lipidomic profile of surfactant obtained from horses with asthma at various clinical stages and to compare results with findings for healthy horses exposed to the same conditions. SAMPLE Surfactant samples obtained from 6 horses with severe asthma and 7 healthy horses. PROCEDURES Clinical evaluation of horses and surfactant analysis were performed. Samples obtained from horses with severe asthma and healthy horses before (baseline), during, and after exposure to hay were analyzed. Crude surfactant pellets were dried prior to dissolution in a solution of isopropanol:methanol:chloroform (4:2:1) containing 7...
March 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Peter R Morresey, Gary W White, H Melinda Poole, Tianhua Hu, Ming Yin, Emily A Sundman
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of dipyrone to control pyrexia in horses with naturally occurring disease under field conditions. ANIMALS 138 horses with pyrexia and various infections evaluated at 14 veterinary sites in 12 states. PROCEDURES In the first (effectiveness) phase of this 2-phase study, horses were randomly assigned 3:1 to receive 1 dose of dipyrone (30 mg/kg [13.6 mg/lb], IV) or an equivalent amount of placebo. Effectiveness was defined as a decrease in rectal temperature ≥ 1...
March 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Alejandro Z Restan, Evandro Zacche, Samara B da Silva, Juliana A Cerqueira, Aulus C Carfiofi, Antonio Queiroz-Neto, Aparecido A Camacho, Guilherme C Ferraz
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the lactate threshold of dogs could be determined by a visual method and to assess the extent of agreement and bias among treadmill velocities for the lactate threshold as determined by visual (LTv) and polynomial (LTp) methods, glucose threshold as determined by visual (GTv) and polynomial (GTp) methods, and heart rate deflection point (HRdp) as a method for estimating the aerobic capacity of dogs. ANIMALS 18 healthy adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Each dog underwent a standardized incremental treadmill exercise test once...
March 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Kelly P Flaminio, John Mark Christensen, Sultan Mohammed Alshahrani, Sumeia Mohammed Mohammed
OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of cefovecin sodium after SC administration of a single dose to African lions (Panthera leo). ANIMALS 3 adult (9 to 10 years old; 1 male and 2 females) and 3 juvenile (2 years old; 1 male and 2 females) African lions. PROCEDURES A crossover study was conducted. A single dose of cefovecin was administered SC at 4 mg/kg (half dose) and 8 mg/kg (full dose) to African lions. Blood samples were collected daily for 14 days after cefovecin injection. Plasma drug concentrations were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection...
March 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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March 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Callum G Donnelly, Jenny L Sones, Jenna C Dockweiler, Lauren A Norberg, Lindsey E Norberg, Soon H Cheong, Robert O Gilbert
OBJECTIVE To evaluate use of flunixin meglumine as a treatment to postpone ovulation in mares, mare fertility after flunixin meglumine treatment during estrous cycles, and effects of flunixin meglumine on function of the corpus luteum after ovulation. ANIMALS 13 healthy mares. PROCEDURES A single-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted. Flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) or lactated Ringer solution (placebo treatment) was administered for 2 days to mares with a dominant follicle (≥ 35 mm in diameter) and behavioral signs of estrus...
March 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Sebastian C Knell, Lucas A Smolders, Thomas Steffen, Antonio Pozzi
OBJECTIVE To provide an objective, quantitative morphometric description of the caudal cervical intervertebral disk (IVD) spaces of dogs. SAMPLE Vertebral specimens consisting of C4 through C7 from 5 medium-sized dogs. PROCEDURES CT images were obtained with the specimens positioned in neutral, flexion, extension, and lateral bending positions. Size and shape of the cranial and caudal end plates, angle between the end plates (IVD wedge angle), and craniocaudal distance (IVD width) between end plates for the 4 loading positions were measured and compared for the 3 segments (C4-5, C5-6, and C6-7)...
March 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Sarah Y Broeckx, Frederik Pille, Simon Buntinx, Leen Van Brantegem, Luc Duchateau, Maarten Oosterlinck, Koen Chiers, Alicia L Bertone, Jan H Spaas, Ann M Martens
OBJECTIVE To evaluate lameness and morphological changes associated with an osteochondral fragment-groove procedure as a means of experimental induction of metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint osteoarthritis within an 11-week period in horses. ANIMALS 6 nonlame adult warmbloods. PROCEDURES The right MCP joint of each horse underwent an osteochondral fragment-groove procedure (day 0). After 1 week of stall rest (ie, starting day 7), each horse was trained daily on a treadmill. Weekly, horses underwent visual and inertial sensor-based assessments of lameness...
March 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Joseph C Parambeth, Jonathan A Lidbury, Jan S Suchodolski, Jörg M Steiner
OBJECTIVE To develop and validate a sandwich ELISA for the measurement of α1 -proteinase inhibitor (α1 -PI) concentrations in serum and fecal samples obtained from common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). SAMPLE Leftover serum (n = 42) and fecal (23) samples submitted for diagnostic testing; paired serum and fecal samples obtained from 30 common marmosets at 2 research colonies. PROCEDURES A sandwich ELISA was developed and analytically validated by determining the lower limit of detection, linearity, accuracy, precision, and reproducibility...
March 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Krista A Keller, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Dawn M Boothe, Marike Visser, Ricardo E de Matos, Olivia A Petritz, Philip H Kass, Joanne R Paul-Murphy
OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics after oral administration of single and multiple doses and to assess the safety of zonisamide in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). ANIMALS 12 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. PROCEDURES Zonisamide (30 mg/kg, PO) was administered once to 6 parrots in a single-dose trial. Six months later, a multiple-dose trial was performed in which 8 parrots received zonisamide (20 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 10 days) and 4 parrots served as control birds. Safety was assessed through monitoring of body weight, attitude, and urofeces and comparison of those variables and results of CBC and biochemical analyses between control and treatment groups...
February 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Keiichi Kuroki, Ned Williams, Hitoshi Ikeda, Chantelle C Bozynski, Emily Leary, James L Cook
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between histologic degeneration of cranial cruciate ligaments (CCLs) and severity of synovitis and ligament vascularity. SAMPLE: CCL and synovium from 59 stifle joints (53 dogs). PROCEDURES: CCL and synovium specimens were obtained from stifle joints of juvenile (15 joints; 12 dogs) and adult (25 joints; 22 dogs) dogs with intact CCLs and dogs with CCL rupture (rCCL; 19 joints; 19 dogs). Vascular density and degenerative changes of the CCL core region and severity of synovitis were semiquantitatively evaluated...
February 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
James Sutherland-Smith, Dana Hutchinson, Lisa M Freeman
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the degree of CT attenuation of muscle would differ between healthy old and young dogs. ANIMALS 10 healthy old (> 8 years old) and 9 healthy young (1 to 5 years old) Labrador Retrievers with a body condition score of 5 or 6 on a 9-point scale. PROCEDURES CT was performed with the dogs mildly sedated. A freehand closed polygon tool was used to define the outer margin of the left epaxial muscles on each transverse image obtained from the cranial to caudal endplates of T13. The CT attenuation values from every voxel from within these regions of interest were exported from DICOM software as a single dataset in an extensible markup language file...
February 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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