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American Journal of Veterinary Research

Leah McGlinchey, Lindsey H Boone, Amelia S Munsterman, Matthew O D Coleridge, Sarah M Rosanowski, Ramsis Farag, R Reid Hanson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of exposure to a balanced electrolyte solution (BES), or equine abdominal fat on the knot-holding capacity (KHC), relative knot security (RKS), weight, and volume of forwarder knots versus surgeon's knots. SAMPLE: 315 knots tied and tested in vitro. PROCEDURES: United States Pharmacopeia size-3 polyglactin 910 suture exposed to air (dry [control]), equine abdominal fat (fat-exposed), or BES (BES-exposed) was used to tie forwarder knots with 2, 3, and 4 throws and surgeon's knots with 5, 6, 7, and 8 throws...
July 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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July 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Boaz Arzi, Frank J M Verstraete, Tanya C Garcia, Monica Lee, Se Eun Kim, Susan M Stover
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and quantify the kinematic behavior of canine mandibles before and after bilateral rostral or unilateral segmental mandibulectomy as well as after mandibular reconstruction with a locking reconstruction plate in ex vivo conditions. SAMPLE: Head specimens from cadavers of 16 dogs (range in body weight, 30 to 35 kg). PROCEDURE: Specimens were assigned to undergo unilateral segmental (n = 8) or bilateral rostral (8) mandibulectomy and then mandibular reconstruction by internal fixation with locking plates...
July 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Orhan Corum, Duygu Durna Corum, Orkun Atik, Ayse Er, Kamil Uney
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics of pentoxifylline (PTX) and its 5-hydroxyhexyl metabolite (M-I) after IV administration of increasing doses of PTX to sheep. ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult Merino sheep. PROCEDURES: Each sheep received 10-, 20-, and 40-mg/kg doses of PTX, IV, with a 15-day washout period between doses. Blood samples were collected before and at predetermined times after administration of each dose to determine plasma PTX and M-I concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography...
July 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Marguerite J Mezzles, Rebecca L Murray, Brian P Heiser
OBJECTIVE: To determine the amount of negative pressure generated by syringes of various sizes with and without an attached thoracostomy tube and whether composition of thoracostomy tubes altered the negative pressure generated. SAMPLE: Syringes ranging from 1 to 60 mL and 4 thoracostomy tubes of various compositions (1 red rubber catheter, 1 polyvinyl tube, and 2 silicone tubes). PROCEDURES: A syringe or syringe with attached thoracostomy tube was connected to a pneumatic transducer...
July 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Trisha J Oura, Jennifer E Graham, S Emi Knafo, Stacie Aarsvold, Jay N Gladden, Bruce A Barton
OBJECTIVE: To use duplex Doppler ultrasonography to compare gastrointestinal activity in healthy sedated versus nonsedated rabbits and to evaluate agreement between B-mode and pulsed-wave Doppler (PWD) ultrasonographic measurements. ANIMALS: 10 healthy client-owned rabbits brought for routine physical examination and 11 brought for routine ovariohysterectomy or castration. PROCEDURES: Duplex Doppler ultrasonography of the gastrointestinal tract was performed once for the 10 rabbits that underwent physical examination and twice (before and after presurgical sedation) for the 11 rabbits that underwent routine ovariohysterectomy or castration...
July 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Thaís S L Machado, Cristina O Massoco, Luis Cláudio L C Silva, Joice Fülber, Juliana J Moreira, Raquel Y A Baccarin
OBJECTIVE: To compare effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein (IRAP), autologous processed plasma (APP), and sodium hyaluronate treatments on synovial fluid cells in vitro and on synovial fluid obtained from osteochondrotic joints of horses. SAMPLE: Synovial fluid cells from 8 healthy equine tibiotarsal joints (in vitro experiment) and synovial fluid samples from 40 tibiotarsal joints of 25 horses with osteochondrosis dissecans (in vivo experiment)...
July 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Brandon M Wahler, Phillip Lerche, Carolina H Ricco Pereira, Richard M Bednarski, Butch KuKanich, Jeffrey Lakritz, Turi K Aarnes
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of naloxone hydrochloride in dogs following intranasal (IN) and IV administration. ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs. PROCEDURES: In a blinded crossover design involving 2 experimental periods separated by a washout period (minimum of 7 days), dogs were randomly assigned to receive naloxone IN (4 mg via a commercially available fixed-dose naloxone atomizer; mean ± SD dose, 0...
July 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Cristina Cacciolatti, Mirella L Meyer-Ficca, Louise L Southwood, Ralph G Meyer, Luigi Bertolotti, Laura Zarucco
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) inhibitors on the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by interferon-γ (IFN-γ)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of horses as an in vitro model of inflammation in horses. SAMPLE: 1,440 samples of PBMCs from 6 healthy research horses. PROCEDURES: From heparinized whole blood samples, PBMC cultures were obtained...
July 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Taisuke Kuroda, Shun-Ichi Nagata, Norihisa Tamura, Hiroshi Mita, Kanichi Kusano, Fumiaki Mizobe, Yoshimasa Takizawa, Kentaro Fukuda, Yoshinori Kasashima
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pharmacokinetics and antihistaminic effects (pharmacodynamics) of olopatadine in a small population of healthy horses after administration via nasogastric tube. ANIMALS: 4 healthy adult Thoroughbreds. PROCEDURES: Olopatadine (0.1 mg/kg, once) was administered via nasogastric tube. Blood samples were collected at predetermined time points for pharmacokinetic analyses of the drug in plasma. Olopatadine effects were investigated by measurement of cutaneous wheals induced by ID histamine injection (0...
July 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Kelley M Varner, Klaus Hopster, Bernd Driessen
OBJECTIVE: To assess effects of nitrogen and helium on efficacy of an alveolar recruitment maneuver (ARM) for improving pulmonary mechanics and oxygen exchange in anesthetized horses. ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES: Horses were anesthetized twice in a randomized crossover study. Isoflurane-anesthetized horses in dorsal recumbency were ventilated with 30% oxygen and 70% nitrogen (treatment N) or heliox (30% oxygen and 70% helium; treatment H) as carrier gas...
July 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Elizabeth M Morgan, Johanna C Heseltine, Gwendolyn J Levine, Daniel E L Promislow, Kate E Creevy
OBJECTIVE: To develop a low-technology system that can be used by dog owners to obtain morphological and mobility measurements in companion dogs as candidate components of an eventual canine frailty scale. ANIMALS: 57 adult (≥ 1-year-old) dogs enrolled by 43 owners. PROCEDURES: Morphological measurements of dogs were performed by investigators and dog owners. Dogs participated in timed in-clinic mobility trials across a flat surface (on-leash trial with the owner, on-leash trial with the investigator, and off-leash trial) and on stairs; each trial was repeated 3 times...
July 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Hajime Asada, Hirotaka Tomiyasu, Yuko Goto-Koshino, Koichi Ohno, Hajime Tsujimoto
OBJECTIVE: To examine effects of a common mutation (2-base insertion in exon 5) of the TP53 gene on biological function of p53 protein in canine histiocytic sarcoma cells. SAMPLE: Canine histiocytic tumor cell lines DH82 with deletion of TP53 and CHS-3 with the wild-type TP53 and canine wild-type and mutant TP53 fragments. PROCEDURES: Wild-type or mutant TP53 with a polyprotein peptide tag at the N-terminus was transduced into DH82 and CHS-3 cells...
July 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Kevin E Washburn, Virginia R Fajt, Ashley N Polasek, Sara D Lawhon, Ashley L Padgett, Chih-Ping Lo, Travis P Mays, Shannon E Washburn
OBJECTIVE: To determine oxytetracycline concentrations in plasma and in fluid from Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (CPT)-inoculated tissue chambers (used as experimental abscess models) and uninoculated (control) tissue chambers in sheep after IM or local administration of the drug and to investigate whether CPT growth was reduced or eliminated by these treatments. ANIMALS: 10 clinically normal female sheep. PROCEDURES: Sterile tissue chambers were surgically implanted in both paralumbar fossae of each sheep; ≥ 2 weeks later (day -6), 1 randomly selected chamber was inoculated with CPT, and the opposite chamber was injected with sterile growth medium...
June 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
François R Bertin, Lauren Eichstadt Forsythe, Janice E Kritchevsky
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of high doses of orally administered levothyroxine sodium (LT4 ) on serum concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3 ) and thyroxine (T4 ) in euthyroid horses. ANIMALS: 12 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES: 10 horses initially received water (vehicle) or 240 mg (5X treatment) or 480 mg (10× treatment) of LT4 , and blood samples were collected at baseline (0 hours) and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after treatment to measure serum T3 and T4 concentrations...
June 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Lisa M Freeman, Kathryn E Michel, Brian M Zanghi, Brittany M Vester Boler, Julien Fages
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate repeatability and reproducibility of muscle condition score (MCS) in dogs with various degrees of muscle loss; to compare MCS, muscle ultrasonographic measurements, and quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) measurements; and to identify cutoff values for ultrasonographic measurements of muscle that can be used to identify dogs with cachexia and sarcopenia. ANIMALS: 40 dogs of various age, body condition score (BCS), and MCS. PROCEDURES: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted...
June 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Juan C Cartagena-Albertus, Javier Engel Manchado, Antoaneta Moise, Sergio Moya García, Jose A Montoya Alonso
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of maropitant and loperamide for the prevention and reduction of adverse gastrointestinal effects associated with administration of paclitaxel to dogs with cancer. ANIMALS: 168 dogs with cancer. PROCEDURES: The study comprised 2 phases. For phase 1, dogs in the intervention group were administered maropitant and loperamide followed by paclitaxel. Outcomes were compared with those for a control group that received only maropitant and paclitaxel...
June 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Aimee L Drane, Rebeca Atencia, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Pablo Rodriguez, Carlos Sanchez, Sarah Simcox, Yedra Feltrer, Bruce Peck, Jaclyn Eng, Sophie Moittie, Steve Unwin, Glyn Howatson, David Oxborough, Mike R Stembridge, Rob E Shave
OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively characterize cardiac structure and function, from infancy to adulthood, in male and female wild-born captive chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) living in sanctuaries. ANIMALS: 290 wild-born captive chimpanzees. PROCEDURES: Physical and echocardiographic examinations were performed on anesthetized chimpanzees in 3 sanctuaries in Africa between October 2013 and May 2017. Results were evaluated across age groups and between sexes, and potential differences were assessed with multiple 1-way independent Kruskal-Wallis tests...
June 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Ilaria Lippi, Francesca Perondi, Daniele Petrini, Maria Cristina La Fortuna, Giacomo Luci, Luigi Intorre, Grazia Guidi, Valentina Meucci
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation by means of plasma clearance of iohexol (IOX) in domestic rabbits and to assess accuracy of limited-sampling models for GFR estimation. ANIMALS: 6 healthy domestic rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ). PROCEDURES: Each rabbit received IOX (64.7 mg/kg [0.1 mL/kg], IV), and blood samples were collected at predetermined times before and after administration. Plasma IOX concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography...
June 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Rebecca A Hersh-Boyle, William T N Culp, Dorothy C Brown, Austin C Luskin, Amy S Kapatkin, Po-Yen Chou, Kimberly A Agnello, Jennifer A Reetz, Mark A Oyama, Lance C Visser, Carrie A Palm, Dana L Clarke
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate radiation exposure of dogs and cats undergoing procedures requiring intraoperative fluoroscopy and for operators performing those procedures. SAMPLE: 360 fluoroscopic procedures performed at 2 academic institutions between 2012 and 2015. PROCEDURES: Fluoroscopic procedures were classified as vascular, urinary, respiratory, cardiac, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic. Fluoroscopy operators were classified as interventional radiology-trained clinicians, orthopedic surgeons, soft tissue surgeons, internists, and cardiologists...
June 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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