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American Journal of Veterinary Research

Panagiota C Tyrnenopoulou, Eleftherios D Rizos, Maria Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Paraskevi L Papadopoulou, Michail N Patsikas, Lysimachos G Papazoglou, Amalia Aggeli, Nikolaos E Diakakis
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether differences existed in the viscoelastic properties of synovial fluid samples from the metacarpophalangeal, intercarpal, and distal interphalangeal joints of orthopedically normal athletic horses. ANIMALS: 45 warmblood horses and 30 Thoroughbreds (age range, 4 to 16 years). PROCEDURES: Synovial fluid samples were aseptically obtained via arthrocentesis from 1 metacarpophalangeal, intercarpal, and distal interphalangeal joint of each horse, and nucleated cell counts were performed...
April 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Paolo Canonici, Francesca Beccati, Fernando Canonici, Marco Pepe
OBJECTIVE: To develop a reliable method for injection of the tarsometatarsal (TMT) joint of horses through a medial approach and to characterize anatomy of the synovial recesses of the TMT joint with CT. SAMPLE: 13 pairs of fresh cadaveric equine tarsi. PROCEDURES: TMT joints were assessed with radiography and CT. Twelve pairs of TMT joints were assigned to an experienced veterinarian (8 joints) or veterinary student (16 joints) for injection with contrast medium through a medial or a lateral approach...
April 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Joanna L Pilton, Jennifer Chau, Timothy S Foo, Evelyn J Hall, Fernando Martinez-Taboada, Juan M Podadera, Mariano A Makara
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate 3 doses of gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DPTA) for hepatic CT and cholangiography in cats and to determine optimal timing for hepatobiliary image acquisition and evaluation of the contrast-enhanced hepatobiliary anatomy. ANIMALS: 6 healthy cats. PROCEDURES: Cats were anesthetized; sequential CT scans were performed 0, 5, 25, 45, 65, and 85 minutes after IV administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA at low (0.0125 mmol/kg), medium (0.1 mmol/kg), and high (0...
April 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Elisabeth C Snead, Jewel E Milo, Carling A McCrea, James E Montgomery, Cindy Xin Feng, Michal J Wesolowski, Surajith N Wanasundara, Carl A Wesolowski
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate agreement of 4 methods (Tikhonov gamma variate adaptive regularization of plasma concentration-time curve fitting applied to technetium Tc 99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid [99m Tc-DTPA] plasma clearance [Tk-GV], plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine [CrCL], Gates gamma camera-based measurement method with 99m Tc-DTPA renal clearance and dynamic scintigraphy [GTS], and iohexol renal clearance assessed with dynamic CT with Patlak plotting [CT-Pp]) for measuring glomerular filtration rates (GFR) in healthy cats...
April 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Megan L Wilson, James K Roush, Walter C Renberg
OBJECTIVE: To assess single-day and multiday repeatability of weight distribution (stance) data obtained with a commercial analyzer for dogs with naturally occurring hind limb lameness. ANIMALS: 46 dogs (15 and 31 for single-day and multiday trials, respectively). PROCEDURES: For single-day trials, 5 to 10 measurements/trial were collected to determine body weight (BW), weight distribution on each limb, and forelimb and hind limb symmetry indices (SIs)...
April 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Mariajesus Soula, Justin W Shmalberg, Matthew D Johnson
OBJECTIVE: To compare use of a 3-level self-locking suture (3LSLS) technique with use of a previously described modified 3-loop pulley (M3LP) technique to repair rupture of the proximal aspect of patellar tendons in limbs from canine cadavers. SAMPLE: Paired hind limbs of 6 adult mixed-breed dogs. PROCEDURES: A limb from each pair was randomly assigned to be repaired by the 3LSLS technique or M3LP technique with size-2 ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene and size-0 monofilament polypropylene suture, respectively...
April 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Roberto A Santilli, Dolores Maria Porteiro Vázquez, Magda Gerou-Ferriani, Sergio F Lombardo, Manuela Perego
OBJECTIVE: To assess recording accuracy of right atrial and ventricular depolarization during 12-lead ECG when precordial lead V1 was positioned at each of 5 locations on the thorax of dogs with various thoracic conformations. ANIMALS: 60 healthy client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES: 20 dogs were allocated to each of 3 groups (brachymorphic, mesomorphic, or dolichomorphic) on the basis of thoracic conformation. Each dog remained unsedated and was positioned in right lateral recumbency for a series of five 12-lead surface ECGs, with V1 located adjacent to the sternum in the fifth intercostal space (ICS; control), at the costochondral junction (CCJ) of the right first ICS (1st-R), at the CCJ of the right third ICS, at the right third ICS where the thorax was the widest, and at the CCJ of the left first ICS...
April 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Giorgia Santarelli, Marco Baron Toaldo, Jonathan Bouvard, Tony M Glaus, Josefa Fernández Del Palacio
OBJECTIVE: To determine variability of global longitudinal strain (GLS) and strain rate (SR) measurements in dogs with and without cardiac disease derived from 2-D speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) by use of various software. ANIMALS: 2 cohorts comprising 44 dogs (23 cardiovascularly healthy and 21 with cardiac disease) and 40 dogs (18 cardiovascularly healthy and 22 with cardiac disease). PROCEDURES: Transthoracic echocardiographic images in each cohort were analyzed with vendor-independent software and vendor-specific 2-D STE software for each of 2 vendors...
April 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Fiona L Bateman, Shannon G M Kirejczyk, Georgina V Stewart, Daniel C Cutler, Laura L Quilling, Elizabeth W Howerth, Joerg Mayer
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an enrofloxacin-silver sulfadiazine emulsion (ESS) labeled for treatment of otitis externa in dogs has ototoxic effects in rabbits following myringotomy. ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult New Zealand White rabbits. PROCEDURES: Rabbits were anesthetized for brainstem auditory-evoked response (BAER) tests on day 0. Myringotomy was performed, and BAER testing was repeated. Saline (0.9% NaCl) solution and ESS were then instilled in the left and right middle ears, respectively, and BAER testing was repeated prior to recovery of rabbits from anesthesia...
April 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Stefano Oricco, Roberto Rabozzi, Caterina Meneghini, Paolo Franci
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of focused cardiac ultrasonography and selected echocardiographic variables for predicting fluid responsiveness in conscious, spontaneously breathing dogs with various clinical conditions. ANIMALS: 26 dogs (15 males and 11 females) with a median age of 84 months (range, 12 to 360 months) and median body weight of 8 kg (range, 2 to 35 kg) referred for various clinical conditions. PROCEDURES: Left ventricular end-diastolic internal diameter normalized to body weight (LVIDDn), left ventricular volume score (LVVS), left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (EDVI), aortic velocity time integral (VTIAo ), and aortic peak flow velocity (VmaxAo ) were echocardiographically measured before and after IV administration of a bolus of lactated Ringer solution (4 mL/kg) over a 1-minute period...
April 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Hannah E Visser, D Dustin Dees, Nicholas J Millichamp, Lucien V Vallone, Erin M Scott
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of orally administered melatonin on the intraocular pressure (IOP) of ophthalmologically normal dogs. ANIMALS: 20 ophthalmologically normal dogs (40 eyes). PROCEDURES: In a randomized crossover study, each dog received a 7-day regimen of melatonin (0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and a placebo (150 mg of lactose powder in a capsule, PO, q 12 h), with a 7-day washout period between treatment regimens. Rebound tonometry was used to measure the IOP in both eyes of each dog 5 times at 2-hour intervals on days 0 (before administration of the first dose), 2, 4, and 7 (after administration of the last dose) of each treatment period...
April 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Masahiro Tamura, Hiroshi Ohta, Khoirun Nisa, Tatsuyuki Osuga, Noboru Sasaki, Keitaro Morishita, Mitsuyoshi Takiguchi
OBJECTIVE: To assess liver and spleen stiffness in healthy dogs by use of a novel 2-D shear wave elastography (SWE) technique and to investigate the repeatability and reproducibility of the technique. ANIMALS: 8 healthy adult Beagles. PROCEDURES: 2-D SWE was performed on each dog to assess liver and spleen stiffness. Repeatability (intraday variability) and reproducibility (interday variability) of 2-D SWE were investigated. For all 8 dogs, 2-D SWE was performed 3 times in 1 day (4-hour intervals) and on 3 separate days (1-week interval)...
April 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Mari I Waterman, Jonathan A Abbott, Andrea Eriksson De Rezende, Jeffrey R Wilcke
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that once-daily oral administration of atenolol would attenuate the heart rate response to isoproterenol for 24 hours. ANIMALS 20 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted. Dogs were assigned to receive atenolol (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) or a placebo for 5 to 7 days. After a washout period of 7 days, dogs then received the other treatment. Heart rate at rest (HRr ) and heart rate induced by administration of isoproterenol (HRi ) as a constant rate infusion (0...
March 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Adam Auckburally, Tamara L Grubb, Maja Wiklund, Görel Nyman
OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of mechanical ventilation (MV) and perfusion conditions on the efficacy of pulse-delivered inhaled nitric oxide (PiNO) in anesthetized horses. ANIMALS 27 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES Anesthetized horses were allocated into 4 groups: spontaneous breathing (SB) with low (< 70 mm Hg) mean arterial blood pressure (MAP; group SB-L; n = 7), SB with physiologically normal (≥ 70 mm Hg) MAP (group SB-N; 8), MV with low MAP (group MV-L; 6), and MV with physiologically normal MAP (group MV-N; 6)...
March 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Brittany N Stevens, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Kathryn L Phillips, Alvin C Camus, Esteban Soto
OBJECTIVE To describe a technique for endoscopic evaluation of the coelomic viscera of koi (Cyprinus carpio) and to evaluate the ability to visually examine coelomic structures by use of an approach cranial or caudal to the pelvic girdle. ANIMALS 16 subadult koi. PROCEDURES Koi were anesthetized with buffered tricaine methanesulfonate. Coelioscopic examination was performed via a ventral midline incisional approach cranial or caudal to the pelvic girdle. A 2.7-mm × 18-cm 30° oblique endoscope within a 4.8-mm operating sheath and infusion of saline (0...
March 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Nina R Kieves, Juliette L Hart, Richard B Evans, Felix M Duerr
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of 3 walkway cover types on temporospatial and ground reaction force measurements of dogs during gait analysis with a pressure-sensitive walkway (PSW). ANIMALS 35 client- and staff-owned dogs (25 nonlame and 10 lame). PROCEDURES In a crossover study design, all dogs were evaluated at a comfortable walk on a PSW to which 3 cover types (a 0.32-cm-thick corrugated vinyl mat or a 0.32- or 0.64-cm-thick polyvinyl chloride yoga mat) were applied in random order. Temporospatial and ground reaction force measurements were obtained and compared among cover types within the nonlame and lame dog groups...
March 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Undine Christmann, R Duncan Hite, Sharon G Witonsky, Virginia A Buechner-Maxwell, Paul L Wood
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the lipidomic profile of surfactant obtained from horses with asthma at various clinical stages and to compare results with findings for healthy horses exposed to the same conditions. SAMPLE Surfactant samples obtained from 6 horses with severe asthma and 7 healthy horses. PROCEDURES Clinical evaluation of horses and surfactant analysis were performed. Samples obtained from horses with severe asthma and healthy horses before (baseline), during, and after exposure to hay were analyzed. Crude surfactant pellets were dried prior to dissolution in a solution of isopropanol:methanol:chloroform (4:2:1) containing 7...
March 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Peter R Morresey, Gary W White, H Melinda Poole, Tianhua Hu, Ming Yin, Emily A Sundman
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of dipyrone to control pyrexia in horses with naturally occurring disease under field conditions. ANIMALS 138 horses with pyrexia and various infections evaluated at 14 veterinary sites in 12 states. PROCEDURES In the first (effectiveness) phase of this 2-phase study, horses were randomly assigned 3:1 to receive 1 dose of dipyrone (30 mg/kg [13.6 mg/lb], IV) or an equivalent amount of placebo. Effectiveness was defined as a decrease in rectal temperature ≥ 1...
March 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Alejandro Z Restan, Evandro Zacche, Samara B da Silva, Juliana A Cerqueira, Aulus C Carfiofi, Antonio Queiroz-Neto, Aparecido A Camacho, Guilherme C Ferraz
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the lactate threshold of dogs could be determined by a visual method and to assess the extent of agreement and bias among treadmill velocities for the lactate threshold as determined by visual (LTv) and polynomial (LTp) methods, glucose threshold as determined by visual (GTv) and polynomial (GTp) methods, and heart rate deflection point (HRdp) as a method for estimating the aerobic capacity of dogs. ANIMALS 18 healthy adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Each dog underwent a standardized incremental treadmill exercise test once...
March 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Kelly P Flaminio, John Mark Christensen, Sultan Mohammed Alshahrani, Sumeia Mohammed Mohammed
OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of cefovecin sodium after SC administration of a single dose to African lions (Panthera leo). ANIMALS 3 adult (9 to 10 years old; 1 male and 2 females) and 3 juvenile (2 years old; 1 male and 2 females) African lions. PROCEDURES A crossover study was conducted. A single dose of cefovecin was administered SC at 4 mg/kg (half dose) and 8 mg/kg (full dose) to African lions. Blood samples were collected daily for 14 days after cefovecin injection. Plasma drug concentrations were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection...
March 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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