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Infection

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737765/derivation-of-a-quick-pitt-bacteremia-score-to-predict-mortality-in-patients-with-gram-negative-bloodstream-infection
#1
Sarah E Battle, Matthew R Augustine, Christopher M Watson, P Brandon Bookstaver, Joseph Kohn, William B Owens, Larry M Baddour, Majdi N Al-Hasan
PURPOSE: This retrospective cohort study derived a "quick" version of the Pitt bacteremia score (qPitt) using binary variables in patients with Gram-negative bloodstream infections (BSI). The qPitt discrimination was then compared to quick sepsis-related organ failure assessment (qSOFA) and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). METHODS: Hospitalized adults with Gram-negative BSI at Palmetto Health hospitals in Columbia, SC, USA from 2010 to 2013 were identified...
February 8, 2019: Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30734249/antagonistic-effect-between-tigecycline-and-meropenem-successful-management-of-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infection
#2
Sheng Bi, Xin Yao, Cheng Huang, Xia Zheng, Tianming Xuan, Jifang Sheng, Kaijin Xu, Beiwen Zheng, Qing Yang
INTRODUCTION: A woman infected by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is reported in this study. CASE REPORT: Tigecycline and meropenem combination was used, and indeed, in vitro checkerboard synergy test confirmed the antagonism between the two antibiotics. Thus, meropenem was ceased and single high-dose tigecycline was successful against the infection. Subsequent experiments showed that the isolates of the KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae ST11 clone caused the infection...
February 7, 2019: Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30734248/invasive-fungal-disease-is-associated-with-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-a-single-center-retrospective-study
#3
Hua Jin, Zhiping Fan, Fen Huang, Yanyan Chai, Li Xuan, Ren Lin, Na Xu, Jieyu Ye, Jing Sun, Qifa Liu
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are major causes of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, the impacts of IFD on chronic GVHD remain unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 510 patients with hematologic malignancy undergoing allo-HSCT to explore the effects of IFD on chronic GVHD. RESULTS: The 2-year cumulative incidences of overall (limited and extensive) and extensive chronic GVHD post-transplantation were higher in patients with IFD compared with those without IFD (69...
February 7, 2019: Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30734247/first-reported-human-case-of-meningitis-by-staphylococcus-condimenti
#4
Erika Zecca, Martina Costanzo, Alessandro Croce, Daniele Sola, Alice Pirovano, Erica Matino, Mario Pirisi
Staphylococcus condimenti (S. condimenti) is a coagulase-negative bacterium, generally regarded as not pathogenic. Indeed, S. condimenti owes its name to having been isolated from starter cultures of fermented sausage, as well as from fish and soy sauces. To the best of our knowledge, only two cases of human infection caused by this bacterium have been reported. Here, we present a case of meningitis by S. condimenti in a 65-year-old woman who was brought to hospital after having been found unconscious at home...
February 7, 2019: Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30725316/in-vitro-activity-of-voriconazole-and-amphotericin-b-against-candida-albicans-candida-krusei-and-cryptococcus-neoformans-in-human-cerebrospinal-fluid
#5
Valentin Al Jalali, Robert Sauermann, Sabine Eberl, Markus Zeitlinger
PURPOSE: Fungal central nervous system (CNS) infections show a high mortality rate and only a few antifungal agents are available to treat these infections. We hypothesize that the different biochemical properties of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compared to the standard growth medium lead to the altered activity of antifungal agents in CSF. We investigated the in vitro activity of two of these agents, i.e., amphotericin B (AmB) and voriconazole (VOR), against three different fungi in CSF in comparison to sabouraud-dextrose broth (SDB)...
February 6, 2019: Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30689161/hbsag-negative-anti-hbc-positive-patients-treated-with-rituximab-prophylaxis-or-monitoring-to-prevent-hepatitis-b-reactivation
#6
Linda Drößler, Clara Lehmann, Karin Töpelt, Dirk Nierhoff, Jörg J Vehreschild, Jan Rybniker, Michael Hallek, Julia Fischer, Verena Stormberg, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Ulrike Wieland, Norma Jung
Rituximab (RTX) has been classified as a drug associated with a high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in HbsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive patients. However, data on frequency of HBV reactivation are limited especially for RTX monotherapy. Several new recommendations for screening, monitoring and prophylactic antiviral treatment have been published recently. Here, we report the real-life experience in the management and reactivation rate of HbsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive patients treated with RTX with or without chemotherapy from a large cohort and discuss our results in the light of updated recommendations...
January 28, 2019: Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30689160/m-pneumoniae-and-c-pneumoniae-are-no-relevant-pathogens-in-critically-ill-patients-with-hospital-acquired-respiratory-tract-infections
#7
Stefan Hagel, Svenja Schmitt, Miriam Kesselmeier, Michael Baier, Tobias Welte, Santiago Ewig, Mathias W Pletz
PURPOSE: To assess the incidence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of hospital-acquired respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in critically ill patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of all ICU-patients ≥ 18 years with RTI who underwent conventional culture techniques and PCR testing for both M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae from respiratory tract specimens (bronchoalveolar lavage or tracheobronchial aspirates) between January 2013 to May 2017 at the Jena University Hospital...
January 28, 2019: Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30689159/sepsis-a-frequent-topic-in-a-new-editorial-section-in-infection
#8
EDITORIAL
J R Bogner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2019: Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666616/the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-urogenital-schistosomiasis-in-italy-in-a-retrospective-cohort-of-immigrants-from-sub-saharan-africa
#9
Marta Tilli, Federico Gobbi, Francesca Rinaldi, Jacopo Testa, Silvio Caligaris, Paola Magro, Dora Buonfrate, Monica Degani, Andrea Minervini, Marco Carini, Agostino Tuccio, Simone Sforza, Maurizio Gulletta, Francesco Castelli, Simone Agostini, Parretti Filippo, Joachim Richter, Piero Olliaro, Zeno Bisoffi, Alessandro Bartoloni, Lorenzo Zammarchi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate ultrasound and praziquantel to, respectively, assess and reduce urogenital schistosomiasis (UGS)-associated morbidity in migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: Migrants from SSA with UGS attending three Italian centres for tropical diseases during 2011-2016 were retrospectively enrolled. Data on clinical symptoms, routine laboratory, parasitological tests, and ultrasound reported as per the WHO-Niamey protocol were collected at baseline and at available follow-up visits after treatment with praziquantel 40 mg/kg/day for 3 days...
January 21, 2019: Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666615/post-malaria-neurological-syndrome-a-rare-neurological-complication-of-malaria
#10
REVIEW
Sanjay K Yadava, Ashley Laleker, Tasaduq Fazili
BACKGROUND: Post-malaria neurological syndrome (PMNS) is a rare self-limiting neurological complication that can occur after recovery from malaria, usually severe falciparum malaria. It is characterized by a myriad of neuropsychiatric manifestations including mild neurological deficit to severe encephalopathy. PMNS was first described in 1996 and since then there have been 48 cases reported in the English literature. We report another case of PMNS in a 24-year-old healthy male and present a review of the disease entity...
January 21, 2019: Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30656604/tularemia-an-experience-of-13-cases-including-a-rare-myocarditis-in-a-referral-center-in-eastern-switzerland-central-europe-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#11
REVIEW
Manuel Frischknecht, Angelina Meier, Bernhard Mani, Lucas Joerg, Olaf Chan-Hi Kim, Katia Boggian, Carol Strahm
BACKGROUND: Tularemia, a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis, can cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans including six major clinical presentations: the ulceroglandular, glandular, oculoglandular, oropharyngeal, typhoidal and pneumonic form. The epidemiology and ecology and thus transmission of tularemia are complex, depending on conditions unique to specific locations. CASE SERIES AND METHODS: Thirteen cases with different forms of the disease and one very rare case of a myocarditis are reported, discussed, and reviewed within the scope of current literature...
January 17, 2019: Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649685/cerebrospinal-fluid-compartmentalization-of-hiv-1-and-correlation-with-plasma-viral-load-and-blood-brain-barrier-damage
#12
Davide Fiore Bavaro, A Calamo, L Lepore, C Fabrizio, A Saracino, G Angarano, L Monno
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate HIV-1 compartmentalization between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma and investigate as to which extent HIV-1 strains in CSF differ from those in blood and whether a correlation with either plasma viral load (pVL) or an altered blood-brain barrier (BBB) does exist. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively evaluated paired CSF/blood samples collected from 86 HIV+ patients. HIV-RNA quantification, pol (PR/RT), and V3 sequencing were performed...
January 16, 2019: Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649684/analysis-of-acute-respiratory-infections-due-to-influenza-virus-a-b-and-rsv-during-an-influenza-epidemic-2018
#13
Spiridon Topoulos, Christian Giesa, Sören Gatermann, Rene Fussen, Sebastian Lemmen, Santiago Ewig
PURPOSE: We studied the incidence, morbidity and mortality of all patients presenting in our teaching hospital with proven influenza virus and/or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection during the influenza epidemic season 2018 which was characterized by a predominant incidence of influenza virus B type B of the Yamagata line. METHODS: In the fall of 2017, specific precaution measures in addition to standard measures were implemented, including standardized testing for influenza virus A,B and RSV by multiplex PCR of pharyngeal swabsData from all consecutive patients were analyzed retrospectively...
January 16, 2019: Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30617837/correction-to-mucormycosis-in-hospitalized-patients-at-a-tertiary-care-center-in-lebanon-a-case-series
#14
Saeed El Zein, Jean El-Cheikh, Aline El Zakhem, Dima Ibrahim, Ali Bazarbachi, Souha S Kanj
Unfortunately, the original version of this article contains mistakes. The names "Jean El-Cheikh" and Aline El Zakhem were spelled incorrectly.
January 7, 2019: Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30607897/management-of-early-and-late-onset-sepsis-results-from-a-survey-in-80-german-nicus
#15
Jana E Litz, Sybelle Goedicke-Fritz, Christoph Härtel, Michael Zemlin, Arne Simon
PURPOSE: The management of early- (EOS) and late-onset sepsis (LOS) and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) has not been extensively evaluated. METHODS: 231 highly specialized level 1 and level 2 NICUs in Germany were asked to participate in an internet-based survey. RESULTS: The final analysis of anonymized datasets from 80 NICUs (response rate 34.6 %) compared university hospitals and regional neonatal referral centers. The survey describes potential areas of improvement concerning empirical treatment of infants with LOS with vancomycin and 3rd generation cephalosporins, minimal volume of blood sampling for aerobic culture, consideration of lumbar tap in any child with blood culture positive LOS and drug monitoring details for gentamicin and vancomycin...
January 3, 2019: Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30565009/enterococcal-bacteremia-in-febrile-neutropenic-children-and-adolescents-with-underlying-malignancies-and-clinical-impact-of-vancomycin-resistance
#16
Kil-Seong Bae, Ju Ae Shin, Seong Koo Kim, Seung Beom Han, Jae Wook Lee, Dong-Gun Lee, Nack-Gyun Chung, Bin Cho, Dae Chul Jeong, Jin Han Kang
PURPOSE: Enterococci are a common cause of bacteremia in immunocompromised patients. Although the increase of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) makes appropriate antibiotic therapy difficult, clinical characteristics of enterococcal bacteremia and the impact of VRE infection on outcomes have rarely been reported in immunocompromised children. METHODS: We enrolled children and adolescents (< 19 years of age) with underlying malignancies who were diagnosed with enterococcal bacteremia during febrile neutropenia between 2010 and 2017...
December 19, 2018: Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30565008/lung-transplantation-in-two-cystic-fibrosis-patients-infected-with-previously-pandrug-resistant-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-treated-with-ceftazidime-avibactam
#17
Ibai Los-Arcos, Oscar Len, María Teresa Martín-Gómez, Juan José González-López, Berta Saéz-Giménez, María Deu, Xavier Nuvials, Ricard Ferrer, Antonio Román, Joan Gavaldà
We describe two cystic fibrosis patients infected with pandrug-resistant Burkholderia cepacia complex, with the exception of ceftazidime-avibactam, who received prophylaxis with this antibiotic during lung transplantation. Although both patients had a post-operative relapse of respiratory infection, one with positive blood cultures, ceftazidime-avibactam treatment yielded a favourable outcome. 12 months after transplantation, one patient presented an excellent clinical outcome. However, the other patient died 10 months later due to severe B...
December 19, 2018: Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30519966/suboptimal-performance-of-apri-and-fib-4-in-ruling-out-significant-fibrosis-and-confirming-cirrhosis-in-hiv-hcv-co-infected-and-hcv-mono-infected-patients
#18
Giovanni Mazzola, Lucia Adamoli, Vincenza Calvaruso, Fabio Salvatore Macaluso, Pietro Colletti, Sergio Mazzola, Adriana Cervo, Marcello Trizzino, Francesco Di Lorenzo, Chiara Iaria, Tullio Prestileo, Ambrogio Orlando, Vito Di Marco, Antonio Cascio
PURPOSE: We aimed to assess the diagnostic reliability of two indirect biomarkers, APRI and FIB-4, for the staging of liver fibrosis using transient elastography (TE) as reference standard, among HIV/HCV co-infected and HCV mono-infected patients. METHODS: This is an observational, retrospective study on subjects who had access to the RESIST HCV from October 2013 to December 2016, a regional network encompassing 22 hospitals and academic centers throughout Sicily...
December 5, 2018: Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30511297/cystic-echinococcosis-in-the-thigh-a-case-report
#19
Katharina Kurz, Anton Schwabegger, Stephan Schreieck, Bettina Zelger, Guenter Weiss, Rosa Bellmann-Weiler
Intramuscular cystic echinococcosis is a very rare occurrence. Herein we report a case of a 37-year-old patient who presented with progressive swelling of his left thigh. Ultrasound evaluation showed a multicystic, encapsulated lesion (16 × 3.5 × 8.5 cm) in the M. vastus lateralis, and serology confirmed the diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus s.l. infection. No additional cysts were detected upon total body CT scan. The patient was treated with albendazole pre-operatively; surgical resection of the mass was then successfully performed...
December 3, 2018: Infection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30506479/challenges-in-hsv-encephalitis-normocellular-csf-unremarkable-cct-and-atypical-mri-findings
#20
Jan Philipp Bewersdorf, Uwe Koedel, Maximilian Patzig, Konstantinos Dimitriadis, Grit Paerschke, Hans-Walter Pfister, Matthias Klein
PURPOSE: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis continues to be the most common form of sporadic lethal encephalitis worldwide. The wide spectrum of clinical presentations and laboratory findings often poses a diagnostic challenge for physicians which might delay administration of life-saving therapy with acyclovir. Atypical presentations of HSV encephalitis have become increasingly prevalent with better diagnostic techniques and have not been well studied. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated all consecutive PCR-proven HSV encephalitis cases treated at the Hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University in Munich, Germany from January 1, 2013 to February 28, 2018...
December 1, 2018: Infection
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