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Biology of Reproduction

Long Che, Mengmeng Xu, Kaiguo Gao, Cui Zhu, Li Wang, Xuefen Yang, Xiaolu Wen, Hao Xiao, Zongyong Jiang, De Wu
Lactating mammary glands are among the most active lipogenic organs and provide a large percentage of bioactive lipids and calories for infant growth. The branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) valine is known to modulate fatty acids synthesis in adipose tissue; however, its effects on fat metabolism and the underlying mechanisms in mammary glands remain to be determined. Valine supplementation during late pregnancy significantly increased the contents of total milk fat, triglyceride, sphingomyelin, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the colostrum of gilts...
April 15, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Yan Chen, Xiaoliang Li, Huijuan Liao, Xiaotong Leung, Jiabei He, Xiang Wang, Fuping Li, Huanxun Yue, Wenming Xu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been shown to be important for spermatogenesis; both DROSHA and Dicer1 KO mice exhibit infertility due to abnormal miRNA expression. However, the roles of individual miRNAs in spermatogenesis remain elusive. Here we demonstrated that miR-15b, a member of the miR-15/16 family, is primarily expressed in testis. A miR-15b transgenic mouse model was constructed to investigate the role of miR-15b in spermatogenesis. Impaired spermatogenesis was observed in miR-15b transgenic mice, suggesting that appropriate expression of miR-15b is vital for spermatogenesis...
April 15, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Shijian Lv, Na Wang, Jin Ma, Wei-Ping Li, Zi-Jiang Chen, Cong Zhang
Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is characterized by two or more consecutive losses of a clinically established intrauterine pregnancy at early gestation. To date, the etiology of RM remains poorly understood. Impaired decidualization is thought to predispose women to subsequent pregnancy failure. The transcriptional factor brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (BMAL1) controls circadian rhythms and regulates a very large diversity of physiological processes. BMAL1 is essential for fertility...
April 15, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Jitka Mucksová, Markéta Reinišová, Jiří Kalina, Barbora Lejčková, Jiří Hejnar, Pavel Trefil
Successful derivation and cultivation of primordial germ cells (PGC) opened the way to efficient transgenesis and genome editing in the chicken. Furthermore, implantation of male PGCs from non-chicken galliform species into the chicken embryos resulted in cross-species germ line chimeras and viable offspring. We have recently improved the PGC technology by demonstrating that chicken male PGCs transplanted into the testes of adult cockerel recipients mature into functional sperms. However, the availability of this orthotopic transplantation for cross-species transfer remains to be explored...
April 13, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Toshiaki Hino, Ryuzo Yanagimachi
To study how the oviduct behaves in relation to fluid secretion and sperm transport, ovary-oviduct-uterus complexes of the mouse were installed in a fluid-circulating chamber without disturbing the blood circulation or parasympathetic innervation. Injection of a bolus of Indian ink into the lower isthmus revealed very active adovarian peristalsis of the isthmus, which was most prominent during the periovulatory period. Oviduct fluid, secreted by the entire length of the isthmus, was rapidly transported to the ampulla and ovarian bursa before draining into the peritoneal cavity...
April 12, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
José María Sánchez, Daniel J Mathew, Susanta K Behura, Claudia Passaro, Gilles Charpigny, Stephen T Butler, Thomas E Spencer, Pat Lonergan
This study combined in vitro production of bovine blastocysts, multiple embryo transfer techniques and a conceptus-endometrial explant co-culture system to test the hypothesis that bovine endometrium exposed to long vs. short Day 15 conceptuses would exhibit a different transcriptome profile reflective of potential for successful pregnancy establishment. Bovine endometrial explants collected at the late luteal stage of the estrous cycle were cultured in RPMI medium for 6 h with nothing (Control), 100 ng/ml recombinant ovine interferon tau (IFNT), a long Day 15 conceptus, or a short Day 15 conceptus...
April 12, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Romain Lambrot, Keith Siklenka, Christine Lafleur, Sarah Kimmins
Environmental exposures can alter the long-term health and development of offspring. How this environmental information is transmitted via the germline remains unknown, but it is thought to involve epigenetic inheritance. We recently determined that genetic disruption of histone H3 di-methylation at lysine 4 (H3K4me2) in sperm alters gene expression in the embryo and negatively impacts development across generations. However, little is known regarding when in spermatogenesis H3K4me2 methylation is established, and whether specific regions bearing H3K4me2 resist the epigenome remodelling that occurs throughout spermatogenesis...
April 5, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Yusuke Shiromoto, Satomi Kuramochi-Miyagawa, Ippei Nagamori, Shinichiro Chuma, Tatsuhiko Arakawa, Toru Nishimura, Hidetoshi Hasuwa, Taro Tachibana, Masahito Ikawa, Toru Nakano
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), a subclass of germ cell-specific non-coding small RNAs, are essential for de novo DNA methylation of retrotransposon genes in embryonic testes. PIWIL2/MILI, one of three mouse PIWI family members, is indispensable for piRNA production, DNA methylation of retrotransposons presumably via piRNA, and normal spermatogenesis. In vitro analysis using germ line stem cells (GS cells) revealed that glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 2 (GPAT2), which is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein involved in generation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and highly expressed in testes, plays important roles in spermatogenesis...
April 5, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Craig C Ulrich, Veronica Arinze, Carolina Bueno Wandscheer, Christian Copley Salem, Camellia Nabati, Neda Etezadi-Amoli, Heather R Burkin
INTRODUCTION: Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2/9) have previously been shown to be elevated in serum and amniotic fluid from women undergoing preterm birth. We performed experiments to determine the effects of MMP2/9 on uterine contraction and birth timing. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Pregnant mice were injected daily with 50 mg/kg of SB-3CT or vehicle control beginning on gestational day 14-18 to determine if MMP2/9 inhibition would affect parturition timing. MMP2/9 expression in human myometrial tissue was determined by Simple Western (Wes) and semi-quantitative western blot...
April 5, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
N Protopapas, L Hamilton, R Warkentin, W Xu, P Sutovsky, R Oko
The perinuclear theca (PT) is a cytosolic protein capsule that surrounds the nucleus of eutherian spermatozoa. Compositionally, it is divided into two regions: the subacrosomal layer (SAL) and the postacrosomal sheath (PAS). In falciform spermatozoa, a third region of the PT emerges that extends beyond the nuclear apex called the perforatorium. The formation of the SAL and PAS differ, with the former assembling early in spermiogenesis concomitant with acrosome formation, and the latter dependent on manchette descent during spermatid elongation...
April 2, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Bo-Yang Yu, Gerile Subudeng, Chen-Guang Du, Zhi-Hong Liu, Yu-Fen Zhao, Erge Namei, Yue Bai, Bing-Xue Yang, Hai-Jun Li
Plasminogen activator, tissue type (PLAT) and its inhibitor serpin family E member 1 (SERPINE1) cooperatively regulate PLAT activity in various reproductive processes. However, it is unknown whether this includes bovine oocyte maturation. We addressed this question in the present study by evaluating PLAT and SERPINE1 protein localization in immature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), as well as PLAT mRNA and protein expression in cultured COCs after 0, 8, 16, and 24 h of in vitro maturation (IVM). We also examined the effects of PLAT and SERPINE1 on germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and oocyte cyclic 3' 5' adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, cumulus expansion index, and expansion-related gene expression in oocytes derived from bovine COCs cultured for 4, 8, and 12 h and in COCs cultured for 16 h...
April 2, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
L Bergandi, S Canosa, G Pittatore, F Silvagno, S Doublier, G Gennarelli, C Benedetto, A Revelli
Breast cancer patients under 40 years of age who are candidate to chemotherapy with alkylating drugs may undergo controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with human recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rhFSH) in order to get fertility preservation by mature oocyte cryostorage. The direct effect(s) of exogenous rhFSH on the chemosensitivity of breast cancer is currently unknown. To clarify this issue, we incubated four different breast cancer cell lines with rhFSH (10 IU/L, 24h) and then we exposed them to doxorubicin (DOX) or cyclophosphamide (CPA)...
April 2, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Supipi Mirihagalle, Tianming You, Lois Suh, Chintan Patel, Liying Gao, Saniya Rattan, Huanyu Qiao
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a chemical that is widely used as a plasticizer. Exposure to DEHP has been shown to alter ovarian function in humans. Additionally, foods high in fat content, regularly found in the western diet, have been shown to be another potential disruptor of fetal ovarian function. Due to DEHP's lipophilicity, high-fat foods can be easily contaminated. Therefore, exposure to DEHP and a high-fat diet are both health concerns, especially in pregnant women, and the effects of these exposures on fetal oocyte quality and quantity should be elucidated...
April 2, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Kensuke Ichida, Wataru Kawamura, Misako Miwa, Yoshiko Iwasaki, Tsubasa Kubokawa, Makoto Hayashi, Ryosuke Yazawa, Goro Yoshizaki
During our previous work toward establishing surrogate broodstock that can produce donor-derived gametes by germ cell transplantation, we found that only type A spermatogonia (ASGs) have the potency to colonize recipient gonads. Therefore, the ability to visualize ASGs specifically would allow the sequential analysis of donor cell behavior in the recipient gonads. Here we produced monoclonal antibodies that could recognize the cell surface antigens of ASGs in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), with the aim of visualizing live ASGs...
April 1, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
S Sakib, A Uchida, P Valenzuela-Leon, Y Yu, H Valli-Pulaski, K Orwig, M Ungrin, I Dobrinski
Three-dimensional (3D) organoids can serve as an in vitro platform to study cell-cell interactions, tissue development and toxicology. Development of organoids with tissue architecture similar to testis in vivo has remained a challenge. Here, we present a microwell aggregation approach to establish multicellular 3D testicular organoids from pig, mouse, macaque and human. The organoids consist of germ cells, Sertoli cells, Leydig cells and peritubular myoid cells forming a distinct seminiferous epithelium and interstitial compartment separated by a basement membrane...
March 30, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Laura F Martin, Lauren S Richardson, Márcia Guimarães da Silva, Samantha Sheller-Miller, Ramkumar Menon
INTRODUCTION: Dexamethasone (Dex), a corticosteroid hormone, is used during the perinatal period to help fetal lung and other organ development. Conversely, Dex-induced cell proliferation has been associated with accelerated aging. Using primary amnion epithelial cells (AECs) from term, not in labor, fetal membranes, we tested the effects of Dex on cell proliferation, senescence, and inflammation. METHOD: Primary AECs treated with Dex (100 nM and 200 nM) for 48 h were tested for cell viability (crystal violet dye exclusion), cell cycle progression and/or type of cell death (flow cytometry), expression patterns of steroid receptors (Glucocorticoid Receptor, Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1&2), inflammatory mediators (IL-6 and IL-8), and telomere length (quantitative RT-PCR)...
March 30, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Minda Ju, Liu Yang, Jing Zhu, Zhejun Chen, Mizhen Zhang, Jin Yu, Zhanzhuang Tian
Precocious puberty commonly results from premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the initial trigger for HPGA activation and plays an important role in puberty onset. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) can promote pulsatile GnRH secretion and accelerates puberty onset. However, the mechanism of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in precocious puberty (PP) pathogenesis remains obscure. We found that serum GnRH, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogen (E2) levels, hypothalamic NMDAR1 and GnRH mRNA expression peaked at the vaginal opening (VO) day...
March 27, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Ratana Lim, Martha Lappas
Untimely activation of the inflammatory response by sterile or infective insults in uterine tissues can result in preterm birth. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and pathogenic activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiates a biochemical cascade of events leading to myometrial activation and contractility, cervical dilatation, and rupture of the chorioamniotic membranes. GIT2 is a signaling protein known to play a role in innate and adaptive immunity; however, its role in the inflammatory pathways of human labor are not known...
March 27, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
C K Hughes, S W Maalouf, W S Liu, J L Pate
The corpus luteum (CL) is essential for maintenance of pregnancy in all mammals and luteal rescue, which occurs around day 16-19 in the cow, is necessary to maintain luteal progesterone production. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling were performed to compare the day 17 bovine CL of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Among mRNA and proteins measured, 140 differentially abundant mRNA and 24 differentially abundant proteins were identified. Pathway analysis was performed using four programs. Modulated pathways included T cell receptor signaling, vascular stability, cytokine signaling, and extracellular matrix remodeling...
March 27, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Qingran Kong, Xue Quan, Jiawei Du, Yurong Tai, Wanxin Liu, Jiaming Zhang, Xiaolei Zhang, Yanshuang Mu, Zhonghua Liu
Activity of some endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) has been proven to be important for development of early mammalian embryo. However, abnormal activation of ERVs can also cause genetic diseases due to their ability to retrotranspose, so the regulatory mechanism to limit transcription of ERVs needs to be clarified. Endogenous small interfering RNA (endo-siRNA) has been reported to protect cells against transposable elements (TEs). Here, we determined the role of ERVs long terminal repeat sequences (LTRs) derived endo-siRNAs (LTR-siRNAs) on inhibition of the activity of ERVs during early embryonic development in pig...
March 18, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
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