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Biology of Reproduction

Lauren E Hamilton, Joao Suzuki, Luis Aguila, Marie-Charlotte Meinsohn, Olivia E Smith, Nicole Protopapas, Wei Xu, Peter Sutovsky, Richard Oko
The postacrosomal sheath (PAS) of the perinuclear theca (PT) is the first compartment of the sperm head to solubilize into the ooplasm upon sperm-oocyte fusion, implicating its constituents in zygotic development. This study investigates the role of one such constituent, Glutathione-S-Transferase Omega 2 (GSTO2), an oxidative-reductive enzyme found in the PAS and perforatorial regions of the PT. GSTO2 uses the conjugation of reduced glutathione, an electron donor shown to be compulsory in sperm disassembly within the ooplasm...
May 14, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Chunwei Zheng, Ying-Chun Ouyang, Binjie Jiang, Xiwen Lin, Jian Chen, Ming-Zhe Dong, Xinjie Zhuang, Shuiqiao Yuan, Qing-Yuan Sun, Chunsheng Han
Family with sequence similarity 46, member C (FAM46C) is a highly conserved non-canonical RNA polyadenylation polymerase that is abundantly expressed in human and mouse testes and is frequently mutated in patients with multiple myeloma. However, its physiological role remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that FAM46C is specifically localized to the manchette of spermatids in mouse testes, a transient microtubule-based structure mainly involved in nuclear shaping and intra-flagellar protein traffic...
May 14, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Jeremy R Egbert, Paul G Fahey, Jacob Reimer, Corie M Owen, Alexei V Evsikov, Viacheslav O Nikolaev, Oliver Griesbeck, Russell S Ray, Andreas S Tolias, Laurinda A Jaffe
In mammalian ovarian follicles, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) signal primarily through the G-protein Gs to elevate cAMP, but both of these hormones can also elevate Ca2+ under some conditions. Here we investigate FSH- and LH-induced Ca2+ signaling in intact follicles of mice expressing genetically encoded Ca2+ sensors, Twitch-2B and GCaMP6s. At a physiological concentration (1 nM), FSH elevates Ca2+ within the granulosa cells of preantral and antral follicles. The Ca2+ rise begins several minutes after FSH application, peaks at ∼10 minutes, remains above baseline for another ∼10 minutes, and depends on extracellular Ca2+...
May 14, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Svetlana A Yatsenko, Aleksandar Rajkovic
About 10% of women of reproductive age are unable to conceive or carry a pregnancy to term. Female factors alone account for at least 35% of all infertility cases and comprise a wide range of causes affecting ovarian development, maturation of oocytes, and fertilization competence, as well as the potential of a fertilized egg for preimplantation development, implantation, and fetal growth. Genetic abnormalities leading to infertility in females comprise large chromosome abnormalities, submicroscopic chromosome deletion and duplications, and DNA sequence variations in the genes that control numerous biological processes implicated in oogenesis, maintenance of ovarian reserve, hormonal signaling, and anatomical and functional development of female reproductive organs...
May 11, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Lingbo Wang, Jinsong Li
For years, extensive efforts have been made to use mammalian sperm as the mediator to generate genetically modified animals, however the strategy of sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is unable to produce stable and diversified modifications in descendants. Recently, haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs) have been successfully derived from haploid embryos carrying the genome of highly specialized gametes, and can stably maintain haploidy (through periodic cell sorting based on DNA quantity) and both self-renewal and pluripotency in long-term cell culture...
May 11, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Makoto Hayashi, Kensuke Ichida, Sakiko Sadaie, Misako Miwa, Ryo Fujihara, Yasuhiko Nagasaka, Goro Yoshizaki
We recently established a germ cell transplantation system in salmonids. Donor germ cells transplanted into the body cavity of recipient embryos migrate toward and are incorporated into the recipient gonad, where they undergo gametogenesis. Among the various types of testicular germ cells, only type A spermatogonia (A-SG) can be incorporated into the recipient gonads. Enriching for A-SG is therefore important for improving the efficiency of germ cell transplantation. To enrich for A-SG, an antibody against a cell surface marker is a convenient and powerful approach used in mammals; however, little is known about cell surface markers for A-SG in fish...
May 11, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Shinnosuke Suzuki, Victoria D Diaz, Brian P Hermann
Mammalian spermatogenesis is a complex developmental program that transforms mitotic testicular germ cells (spermatogonia) into mature male gametes (sperm) for production of offspring. For decades, it has been known that this several-weeks-long process involves a series of highly-ordered and morphologically-recognizable cellular changes as spermatogonia proliferate, spermatocytes undertake meiosis, and spermatids develop condensed nuclei, acrosomes and flagella. Yet, much of the underlying molecular logic driving these processes has remained opaque because conventional characterization strategies often aggregated groups of cells to meet technical requirements or due to limited capability for cell selection...
May 11, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Saniya Rattan, Jodi A Flaws
Humans and animals are repeatedly exposed to endocrine disruptors, many of which are ubiquitous in the environment. Endocrine disruptors interfere with hormone action; thus, causing non-monotonic dose responses that are atypical of standard toxicant exposures. The female reproductive system is particularly susceptible to the effects of endocrine disruptors. Likewise, exposures to endocrine disruptors during developmental periods are particularly concerning because programming during development can be adversely impacted by hormone level changes...
May 11, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Tina N Tran, John C Schimenti
A major challenge in medical genetics is to characterize variants of unknown significance (VUS). Doing so would help delineate underlying causes of disease and the design of customized treatments. Infertility has presented an especially difficult challenge with respect to not only determining if a given patient has a genetic basis, but also to identify the causative genetic factor(s). Though genome sequencing can identify candidate variants, in silico predictions of causation are not always sufficiently reliable so as to be actionable...
May 10, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Aubrey Converse, Peter Thomas
Androgens mediate a number of processes in mammalian and teleost ovaries in a follicle-stage dependent manner, including follicle growth, survival, and apoptosis. We recently reported that the membrane androgen receptor ZIP9 mediates apoptosis in Atlantic croaker granulosa/theca (G/T) cells from mature ovarian follicles, but the effects of androgens on early stage G/T cells in this model remains unknown. Here we show that testosterone mediates pro- and anti-apoptotic responses in a follicle stage-dependent manner in croaker ovarian follicle cells...
May 10, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Megan A Mezera, Caleb S Hamm, Caio A Gamarra, Rodrigo S Gennari, Alexandre B Prata, Roberto Sartori, Milo C Wiltbank
Mechanisms of bovine corpus luteum (CL) maintenance during the second month of pregnancy have not been adequately investigated, despite significant reproductive losses. In the first month, interferon-tau is believed to suppress oxytocin-stimulated prostaglandin F2α (PGF) production, yet there are conflicting reports of circulating PGF metabolite (PGFM). In this study, characterization of PGFM and P4 occurred through continuous bihourly blood sampling in cows undergoing CL regression (D18-21, n = 5), and during the first (D18-21, n = 5) and second month (D47-61; n = 16) of pregnancy...
May 8, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Fei Zhao, Humphrey Hung-Chang Yao
Alfred Jost's work in 1940s laid the foundation of the current paradigm of sexual differentiation of reproductive tracts, which contends that testicular hormones drive the male patterning of reproductive tract system whereas the female phenotype arises by default. Once established, the sex-specific reproductive tracts undergo morphogenesis, giving rise to anatomically and functionally distinct tubular organs along the rostral-caudal axis. Impairment of sexual differentiation of reproductive tracts by genetic alteration and environmental exposure are the main causes of disorders of sex development, and infertility at adulthood...
May 6, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Megan Lim, Hannah M Brown, Karen L Kind, Jeremy G Thompson, Kylie R Dunning
Hemoglobin (Hb) is commonly known for its capacity to bind and transport oxygen and carbon dioxide in erythroid cells. However, it plays additional roles in cellular function and health due to its capacity to bind other gases including nitric oxide. Further, Hb acts as a potent antioxidant, quenching reactive oxygen species. Despite its potential roles in cellular function, the preponderance of Hb research remains focused on its role in oxygen regulation. There is increasing evidence that Hb expression is more ubiquitous than previously thought, with Hb and its variants found in a myriad of cell types ranging from macrophages to spermatozoa...
May 6, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Qiuyan Huang, Bo Liu, Rufang Jiang, Shengbin Liao, Zhiyao Wei, Yin Bi, Xueyuan Liu, Rong Deng, Yufu Jin, Ying Tan, Yihua Yang, Aiping Qin
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are rich in hematopoietic cells and mesenchymal stem cells; Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is rich in various growth factors. PBMCs and PRP have been suggested, individually, to restore ovarian function by improving the local microenvironment. The current study investigated the effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized PBMCs combined with PRP on restoring ovarian function in rats with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). Thirty adult female rats were randomly subdivided into five groups: normal control (control), cyclophosphamide (CTX) plus subsequent PBS (POI + PBS), CTX plus subsequent PRP (POI + PRP), CTX plus subsequent G-CSF-mobilized PBMCs (POI + PBMCs), and CTX plus subsequent G-CSF-mobilized PBMCs combined with PRP (POI + PBMCs + PRP)...
April 29, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Deqiang Miao, Mariana Ianello Giassetti, Michela Ciccarelli, Blanca Lopez-Biladeau, Jon M Oatley
Gene editing technologies, such as CRISPR-Cas9, have important applications in mammalian embryos for generating novel animal models in biomedical research and lines of livestock with enhanced production traits. However, the lack of methods for efficient introduction of gene editing reagents into zygotes of various species and the need for surgical embryo transfer in mice have been technical barriers of widespread use. Here, we described methodologies that overcome these limitations for embryos of mice, cattle, and pigs...
April 26, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Jessica Y Chotiner, Debra J Wolgemuth, P Jeremy Wang
Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulators of the cell cycle. Most of our understanding of their functions has been obtained from studies in single-cell organisms and mitotically proliferating cultured cells. In mammals, there are more than 20 cyclins and 20 CDKs. Although genetic ablation studies in mice have shown that most of these factors are dispensable for viability and fertility, uncovering their functional redundancy, CCNA2, CCNB1, and CDK1 are essential for embryonic development...
April 25, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Claire Stenhouse, Charis O Hogg, Cheryl J Ashworth
It is hypothesized that growth restriction occurs due to inadequate vascularization of the feto-maternal interface. Evidence exists for sexual dimorphism in placental function although associations between fetal sex and the endometrium remain poorly investigated. This study investigated the relationship between porcine fetal size, sex and endometrial angiogenesis at multiple gestational days (GD). Endometrial samples supplying the lightest and closest to mean litter weight (CTMLW), male and female Large White X Landrace conceptuses or fetuses were obtained at GD18, 30, 45, 60, and 90 (n = 5-9 litters/GD)...
April 23, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Lin Shi, Ting Zhou, Qian Huang, Shiyang Zhang, Wei Li, Ling Zhang, Rex A Hess, Gregory J Pazour, Zhibing Zhang
IFT74 is a component of the core intraflagellar transport (IFT) complex, a bidirectional movement of large particles along the axoneme microtubules for cilia formation. In this study, we investigated its role in sperm flagella formation and discovered that mice deficiency in Ift74 gene in male germ cells were infertile associated with low sperm count and immotile sperm. The few developed spermatozoa displayed misshaped heads and short tails. Transmission electron microscopy revealed abnormal flagellar axoneme in the seminiferous tubules where sperm are made...
April 20, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Merli Saare, Triin Laisk, Hindrek Teder, Priit Paluoja, Mariann Koel, Fred Kirss, Helle Karro, Deniss Sõritsa, Andres Salumets, Kaarel Krjutškov, Maire Peters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Cheyenne L Runyan, Stacia Z McIntosh, Marlie M Maestas, Kelsey E Quinn, Ben P Boren, Ryan L Ashley
Placenta development is characterized by extensive angiogenesis and vascularization but if these processes are compromised placental dysfunction occurs, which is the underlying cause of pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Dysregulation of placental angiogenesis has emerged as one of the main pathophysiological features in the development of placental insufficiency and its clinical consequences. The signaling axis initiated by chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor CXCR4 stimulate angiogenesis in other tissues, and may be central to placental vascularization...
April 20, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
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