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Biology of Reproduction

Natasha Singh, Bronwen Herbert, Gavin Sooranna, Anya Das, Suren R Sooranna, Steven M Yellon, Mark R Johnson
Preterm labour (PTL) is the predominant cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. It has several phenotypes, each with a distinct aetiology often involving inflammation. Here, in samples of reproductive tissues obtained in early PTL from women with phenotypically defined PTL, we examined the presence and distribution of inflammation and its relationship with prolabour gene expression. In chorioamnionitis (CA-PTL), cytokine protein concentrations were increased across all tissues; in idiopathic (I-PTL), the inflammatory changes were limited to the choriodecidua; inflammation was not a feature of placental abruption (PA-PTL)...
August 14, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Hiroko Morimoto, Mito Kanatsu-Shinohara, Kyle E Orwig, Takashi Shinohara
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) undergo continuous self-renewal division in response to self-renewal factors. The present study identified ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EPHA2) on mouse SSCs, and showed that supplementation of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), which are both SSC self-renewal factors, induced EPHA2 expression in cultured SSCs. Spermatogonial transplantation combined with magnetic-activated cell sorting or fluorescence-activated cell sorting also revealed that EPHA2 was expressed in SSCs...
August 12, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Danielle M Grant, Alysson Macedo, Derek Toms, Claudia Klein
Pre-implantation equine embryos synthesize and secrete fibrinogen, which is a peculiar finding as fibrinogen synthesis almost exclusively occurs in the liver. This study investigated the hypothesis that conceptus-derived fibrinogen mediates cell adhesion during fixation. At Day 21 of pregnancy five integrin subunits, including ITGA5, ITGB1, ITGAV and ITGB1, displayed significantly higher transcript abundance than at Day 16 of pregnancy. Endometrial epithelial cells adhered to fibrinogen in an integrin-dependent manner in an in-vitro cell adhesion assay...
August 12, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Richard J Holcomb, Seiya Oura, Kaori Nozawa, Katarzyna Kent, Zhifeng Yu, Matthew J Robertson, Cristian Coarfa, Martin M Matzuk, Masahito Ikawa, Thomas X Garcia
High throughput transcriptomics and proteomics approaches have recently identified a large number of germ cell-specific genes with many that remain to be studied through functional genetics approaches. Serine proteases (PRSS) constitute nearly one-third of all proteases, and, in our bioinformatics screens, we identified many that are testis-specific. In this study, we chose to focus on Prss44, Prss46, and Prss54, which we confirmed as testis-specific in mouse and human. Based on analysis of developmental expression in the mouse, expression of all four genes is restricted to the late stage of spermatogenesis concomitant with a potential functional role in spermiogenesis, spermiation, or sperm function...
August 12, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Jie Dong, Na Shin, Ji Yeon Lee, Bei Jia, Anna Chudnovets, Michael W McLane, Su Li, Quan Na, Jun Lei, Irina Burd
Maternal inflammation (MI) is associated with many adverse perinatal outcomes. Placenta plays a vital role in mediating maternal-fetal resource allocation. Studies have shown that MI contributes to placental dysfunction, which then leads to adverse birth outcomes and high health risks throughout childhood. Placental mTORC1 signaling pathway links maternal nutrient availability to fetal growth, however, the impact of MI on mTORC1 signaling in the placenta remains unclear. In this study, we sought to explore the changes of mTORC1 signaling in the mouse placenta at late gestation by using two models of MI employing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) to mimic acute (aMI) and sub-chronic (cMI) inflammatory states, respectively...
August 12, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Ali Borazjani, Bruna M Couri, Mei Kuang, Brian M Balog, Margot S Damaser
Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in lysyl oxidase like-1 knockout (Loxl1 KO) mice mimics that of women since parity is the greatest risk factor. We determined the effect of Loxl1 deficiency on postpartum regulation of connective tissue metabolism genes and degradative enzyme activity in the vagina at 20d gestation or 4 hr, 48 hr, 7d, 15d, 25d, 7wk, or 12wk postpartum. Nulliparous Loxl1 KO and wildtype (WT) mice aged 11wk, 18wk, or 23wk were controls. Gene expression and enzyme activity were assessed using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR and fluorescein conjugated gelatin zymography, respectively...
August 12, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Bongki Kim, Sylvie Breton
Efferent duct ligation (EDL) induces epithelial cell degeneration followed by regeneration in the epididymal initial segment (IS). We tested here the role of androgens in the recovery phase. EDL was performed at post-natal weeks (PNW) 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, and apoptotic and proliferating epithelial cells were quantified 24 hours, and at days 2 and 2.5 post-EDL, respectively. A progressive increase in the number of apoptotic basal cells (BCs) and principal cells (PCs) was detected from PNW 3 to 6, 24 hours after EDL...
August 12, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Qian Huang, Hong Liu, Jing Zeng, Wei Li, Shiyang Zhang, Ling Zhang, Shizhen Song, Ting Zhou, Miriam Sutoysky, Peter Sutoysky, Ruggero Pardi, Rex A Hess, Zhibing Zhang
Intraflagellar transport protein 20 (IFT20) is essential for spermatogenesis in mice. We discovered that COPS5 was a major binding partner of IFT20. COPS5 is the fifth component of the constitutive photomorphogenic-9 signalosome (COP9), which is involved in protein ubiquitination and degradation. COPS5 is highly abundant in mouse testis. Mice deficiency in COPS5 specifically in male germ cells showed dramatically reduced sperm numbers and were infertile. Testis weight was about one third compared to control adult mice, and germ cells underwent significant apoptosis at a pre-meiotic stage...
August 2, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Bart Leemans, Tom A E Stout, Ann Van Soom, Bart M Gadella
Procaine directly triggers pH-dependent cytokinesis in equine oocytes and induces hypermotility in stallion spermatozoa, an important event during capacitation. However, procaine-induced hyperactivated motility is abolished when sperm are washed to remove the procaine prior to sperm-oocyte co-incubation. To understand how procaine exerts its effects, the external Ca2+ and Na+, and weak base activity dependency of procaine-induced hyperactivation in stallion spermatozoa was assessed using computer-assisted sperm analysis...
August 2, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Emily R Bryan, Avinash Kollipara, Logan K Trim, Charles W Armitage, Alison J Carey, Bettina Mihalas, Kate A Redgrove, Eileen A McLaughlin, Kenneth W Beagley
The incidence of Chlamydia infection, in both females and males, is increasing world-wide. Male infections have been associated clinically with urethritis, epididymitis and orchitis, believed to be caused by ascending infection, although the impact of infection on male fertility remains controversial. Using a mouse model of male chlamydial infection, we show that all the major testicular cell populations, germ cells, Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, and testicular macrophages can be productively infected. Furthermore, sperm isolated from vas deferens of infected mice also had increased levels of DNA damage as early as four weeks post-infection...
August 2, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Naoki Ishii, Takujiro Homma, Jaeyong Lee, Hikaru Mitsuhashi, Ken-Ichi Yamada, Naoko Kimura, Yorihiro Yamamoto, Junichi Fujii
Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) suppresses oxidative stress within cells by decreasing the levels of superoxide anions. A dysfunction of the ovary and/or an aberrant production of sex hormones are suspected causes for infertility in SOD1-knockout (KO) mice. We report on attempts to rescue the infertility in female KO mice by providing two antioxidants, ascorbic acid (AsA) and/or coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), as supplements in the drinking water of the KO mice after weaning and on an investigation of their reproductive ability...
August 2, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Te-Chun Shen, Chia-Wen Tsai, Wen-Shin Chang, Yun-Chi Wang, Huai-Mei Hsu, Hsin-Ting Li, Jian Gu, Da-Tian Bau
Endometriosis is a major health issue among women of reproductive age. However, its etiology has not yet been completely understood. We investigated 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from six novel nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes and the susceptibility to endometriosis. A total of 153 patients with endometriosis were recruited during 2000-2010 from central Taiwan. Pathological confirmation was necessary for all patients, and exclusion criteria included the presence of leiomyoma, adenomyosis, or cancer of the uterine, cervix, or ovary and a prescription of hormone therapy...
August 2, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Jinxiu Dong, Lei Xiong, Hengwu Ding, Hui Jiang, Jiawei Zan, Liuwang Nie
A number of genes relevant for sex determination have been found in species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Epigenetics play a key role in sex determination, but characterization of DNA methylation of sex-related genes on TSD remains unclear. Mauremys reevesii is a typical species with TSD. In this study, we analyzed the CpG methylation status of the proximal promoters, the mRNA expression patterns and the correlation between methylation and expression levels of CYP19A1, FOXL2, DMRT1, SOX9, and AMH, which are key genes in sex determination in other species...
July 31, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Kathryn Wilsterman, Xinmiao Bao, Allegra D Estrada, Pierre Comizzoli, George E Bentley
Successful implantation requires complex signaling between the uterine endometrium and the blastocyst. Prior to the blastocyst reaching the uterus, the endometrium is remodeled by sex steroids and other signals to render the endometrium receptive. In vitro models have facilitated major advances in our understanding of endometrium preparation and endometrial-blastocyst communication in mice and humans, but these systems have not been widely adapted for use in other models which might generate a deeper understanding of these processes...
July 30, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Chunxue Zhang, Jingtao Shen, Shuangbo Kong, Mei Zhang, Qun Zhang, Jidong Zhou, Xin Zhen, Nannan Kang, Yue Jiang, Lijun Ding, Haixiang Sun, Guijun Yan
Oxidative stress induces granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis and subsequent follicular atresia. Since our previous studies indicate that miR-181a expression is increased in GCs undergoing apoptosis, the present study was designed to define the relationship between exposure to oxidative stressors in GCs and changes in miR-181a expression and function. To achieve this, we employed an H2O2-induced in vitro model and a 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced in vivo model of ovarian oxidative stress. We demonstrated that in vitro miR-181a overexpression promoted GC apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner; sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) significantly reversed both H2O2-induced and miR-181a-induced apoptosis in GCs...
July 30, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Michele R Plewes, Xiaoying Hou, Pan Zhang, Aixin Liang, Guohua Hua, Jennifer R Wood, Andrea S Cupp, Xiangmin Lv, Cheng Wang, John S Davis
Yes-associated protein (YAP1) is a major component of the Hippo signaling pathway. Although the exact extracellular signals that control the Hippo pathway are currently unknown, increasing evidence supports a critical role for the Hippo pathway in embryonic development, regulation of organ size, and carcinogenesis. Granulosa cells within the ovarian follicle proliferate and produce steroids and growth factors, which facilitate growth of follicle and maturation of the oocyte. We hypothesize that YAP1 plays a role in proliferation and estrogen secretion of granulosa cells...
July 27, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Maolei Gong, Fei Wang, Weihua Liu, Ran Chen, Han Wu, Wenjing Zhang, Xiaoqin Yu, Ruiqin Han, Aijie Liu, Yongmei Chen, Daishu Han
The seminal vesicles (SV) can be infected by microorganisms, thereby resulting in vesiculitis and impairment in male fertility. Innate immune responses in SV cells to microbial infections, which facilitate vesiculitis, have yet to be investigated. The present study aims to elucidate pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-mediated innate immune responses in SV epithelial cells. Various PRRs, including Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), TLR4, cytosolic RNA and DNA sensors, are abundantly expressed in SV epithelial cells...
July 27, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Hongyan Zhu, Ning Qin, Xiaoxing Xu, Xue Sun, Xiaoxia Chen, Jinghua Zhao, Rifu Xu, Birendra Mishra
Spalt-like 1 (SALL1) and spalt-like 3 (SALL3) are multi-zinc finger transcription factors that play an essential role in regulating developmental processes and organogenesis in many species. However, the functional role of SALL1 (csal1) and SALL3 (csal3) in chicken prehierarchical follicle (PF) development is unknown. This study aimed to explore the potential role and mechanism of csal1 and csal3 in granulosa cells (GCs) proliferation, differentiation, and follicle selection within the PFs of hen ovary. Our data demonstrated that the csal1 and csal3 transcriptions were highly expressed in GCs of the various-sized PFs and their proteins were mainly localized in the cytoplasm of granulosa cells and oocytes of the examined PFs as well as in the ovarian stroma and epithelium...
July 27, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Wei Yan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 27, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
K M Hirschi, K Y F Tsai, T Davis, J C Clark, M N Knowlton, B T Bikman, P R Reynolds, J A Arroyo
Preeclampsia (PE) is a complicated obstetric complication characterized by increased blood pressure, decreased trophoblast invasion, and inflammation. The growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6) protein is known to induce dynamic cellular responses and is elevated in PE. Gas6 binds to the AXL tyrosine kinase receptor and AXL-mediated signaling is implicated in proliferation and migration observed in several tissues. Our laboratory utilized Gas6 to induce preeclamptic-like conditions in pregnant rats. Our objective was to determine the role of Gas6/AXL signaling as a possible model of PE...
July 26, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
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