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Biology of Reproduction | Page 2

Yang Mu, Tai-Lang Yin, Xiao-Xuan Huang, Xue Hu, Lu Yin, Jing Yang
Sulforaphane (SFN), a dietary isothiocyanate that is mainly found in cruciferous vegetables, possesses anti-oxidative and anticancer activity and modulates inflammation. However, little is known about the role of SFN in obesity-related male reproductive defects. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of SFN on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced male spermatogenic impairment and further clarify the possible underlying mechanisms. In this study, 8-week-old mice were randomly divided into four groups. Mice were fed a normal diet or an HFD with or without SFN supplementation...
April 20, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Junchul David Yoon, Seon-Ung Hwang, Mirae Kim, Yubyeol Jeon, Sang-Hwan Hyun
Growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), also known as myostatin, is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family and has been identified as a strong physiological regulator of muscle differentiation. Recently, the functional role of GDF8 in reproductive organs has received increased interest following its detection in the human placenta and uterus. To investigate the effects of GDF8 during porcine oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM), we assessed the quality of matured oocytes. Furthermore, we investigated the specific gene transcription and protein activation levels in oocytes and cumulus cells (CCs) after IVM and subsequent embryonic development after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parthenogenetic activation (PA)...
April 20, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
J M Ortiz-Rodriguez, F E Martín-Cano, C Ortega-Ferrusola, J Masot, E Redondo, A Gázquez, M C Gil, I M Aparicio, P Rojo-Domínguez, J A Tapia, H Rodriguez-Martínez, F J Peña
Oxidative stress is considered a major mechanism causing sperm damage during cryopreservation and storage, and underlies male factor infertility. Currently, oxidative stress is no longer believed to be caused only by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, but rather by the deregulation of redox signaling and control mechanisms. With this concept in mind, here, we describe for the first time the presence of the soluble carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11) antiporter, which exchanges extracellular cystine (Cyss) for intracellular glutamate, in stallion spermatozoa, as well as its impact on sperm function using the specific inhibitor sulfasalazine...
April 18, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Long Che, Mengmeng Xu, Kaiguo Gao, Cui Zhu, Li Wang, Xuefen Yang, Xiaolu Wen, Hao Xiao, Zongyong Jiang, De Wu
Lactating mammary glands are among the most active lipogenic organs and provide a large percentage of bioactive lipids and calories for infant growth. The branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) valine is known to modulate fatty acids synthesis in adipose tissue; however, its effects on fat metabolism and the underlying mechanisms in mammary glands remain to be determined. Valine supplementation during late pregnancy significantly increased the contents of total milk fat, triglyceride, sphingomyelin, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the colostrum of gilts...
April 15, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Yan Chen, Xiaoliang Li, Huijuan Liao, Xiaotong Leung, Jiabei He, Xiang Wang, Fuping Li, Huanxun Yue, Wenming Xu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been shown to be important for spermatogenesis; both DROSHA and Dicer1 KO mice exhibit infertility due to abnormal miRNA expression. However, the roles of individual miRNAs in spermatogenesis remain elusive. Here we demonstrated that miR-15b, a member of the miR-15/16 family, is primarily expressed in testis. A miR-15b transgenic mouse model was constructed to investigate the role of miR-15b in spermatogenesis. Impaired spermatogenesis was observed in miR-15b transgenic mice, suggesting that appropriate expression of miR-15b is vital for spermatogenesis...
April 15, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Shijian Lv, Na Wang, Jin Ma, Wei-Ping Li, Zi-Jiang Chen, Cong Zhang
Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is characterized by two or more consecutive losses of a clinically established intrauterine pregnancy at early gestation. To date, the etiology of RM remains poorly understood. Impaired decidualization is thought to predispose women to subsequent pregnancy failure. The transcriptional factor brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (BMAL1) controls circadian rhythms and regulates a very large diversity of physiological processes. BMAL1 is essential for fertility...
April 15, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Jitka Mucksová, Markéta Reinišová, Jiří Kalina, Barbora Lejčková, Jiří Hejnar, Pavel Trefil
Successful derivation and cultivation of primordial germ cells (PGC) opened the way to efficient transgenesis and genome editing in the chicken. Furthermore, implantation of male PGCs from non-chicken galliform species into the chicken embryos resulted in cross-species germ line chimeras and viable offspring. We have recently improved the PGC technology by demonstrating that chicken male PGCs transplanted into the testes of adult cockerel recipients mature into functional sperms. However, the availability of this orthotopic transplantation for cross-species transfer remains to be explored...
April 13, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Toshiaki Hino, Ryuzo Yanagimachi
To study how the oviduct behaves in relation to fluid secretion and sperm transport, ovary-oviduct-uterus complexes of the mouse were installed in a fluid-circulating chamber without disturbing the blood circulation or parasympathetic innervation. Injection of a bolus of Indian ink into the lower isthmus revealed very active adovarian peristalsis of the isthmus, which was most prominent during the periovulatory period. Oviduct fluid, secreted by the entire length of the isthmus, was rapidly transported to the ampulla and ovarian bursa before draining into the peritoneal cavity...
April 12, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
José María Sánchez, Daniel J Mathew, Susanta K Behura, Claudia Passaro, Gilles Charpigny, Stephen T Butler, Thomas E Spencer, Pat Lonergan
This study combined in vitro production of bovine blastocysts, multiple embryo transfer techniques and a conceptus-endometrial explant co-culture system to test the hypothesis that bovine endometrium exposed to long vs. short Day 15 conceptuses would exhibit a different transcriptome profile reflective of potential for successful pregnancy establishment. Bovine endometrial explants collected at the late luteal stage of the estrous cycle were cultured in RPMI medium for 6 h with nothing (Control), 100 ng/ml recombinant ovine interferon tau (IFNT), a long Day 15 conceptus, or a short Day 15 conceptus...
April 12, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Hossam El-Sheikh Ali, Erin L Legacki, Shavahn C Loux, Alejandro Esteller-Vico, Pouya Dini, Kirsten E Scoggin, Alan J Conley, Scott D Stanley, Barry A Ball
The current study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying myometrial activation during equine placentitis related to progestogens and the progesterone receptor signaling pathways. Placentitis was induced via intracervical inoculation with Streptococcus equi ssp zooepidemicus in mares at approximately 290 days of gestation (placentitis group; n = 6) with uninoculated gestationally matched mares as controls (n = 4). Mares in the placentitis and control groups were euthanized, and myometrial samples were collected from two regions: region 1-parallel to active placentitis lesion with placental separation in placentitis group (P1) or caudal pole of the placenta in control group (C1); and region 2-parallel to apparently normal placenta without separation in placentitis group (P2) or uterine body in control group (C2)...
April 10, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Ashley E Meyer, Caroline A Pfeiffer, Kelsey E Brooks, Lee D Spate, Joshua A Benne, Raissa Cecil, Melissa S Samuel, Clifton N Murphy, Susanta Behura, Megan K McLean, Lauren A Ciernia, Michael F Smith, Kristin M Whitworth, Kevin D Wells, Thomas E Spencer, Randall S Prather, Rodney D Geisert
The proposed signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy in pigs is estrogen (E2), produced by the elongating conceptuses between days 11 to 12 of pregnancy with a more sustained increase during conceptus attachment and placental development on days 15 to 30. To understand the role of E2 in porcine conceptus elongation and pregnancy establishment, a loss-of-function study was conducted by editing aromatase (CYP19A1) using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Wild-type (CYP19A1+/+) and (CYP19A1-/-) fibroblast cells were used to create embryos through somatic cell nuclear transfer, which were transferred into recipient gilts...
April 10, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Bin Xiao, Xiao Li, Xiu-Yun Feng, Shuai Gong, Zhi-Bin Li, Jie Zhang, Hong-Jie Yuan, Jing-He Tan
The mechanisms by which psychological stress impairs semen quality are largely unknown. By using a restraint-stressed mouse model, we studied the role of the FasL/Fas system in psychological stress-induced apoptosis of spermatozoa and spermatogenic cells. Male mice were restrained for 48 h before examination for sperm fertilizing potential and for apoptosis and FasL/Fas expression in spermatozoa, spermatogenetic cells/seminiferous tubules, and caudae epididymides. The results showed that the male restraint reduced motility, fertilization rates, and mitochondrial membrane potential while increasing apoptosis and Fas expression in spermatozoa...
April 9, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Romain Lambrot, Keith Siklenka, Christine Lafleur, Sarah Kimmins
Environmental exposures can alter the long-term health and development of offspring. How this environmental information is transmitted via the germline remains unknown, but it is thought to involve epigenetic inheritance. We recently determined that genetic disruption of histone H3 di-methylation at lysine 4 (H3K4me2) in sperm alters gene expression in the embryo and negatively impacts development across generations. However, little is known regarding when in spermatogenesis H3K4me2 methylation is established, and whether specific regions bearing H3K4me2 resist the epigenome remodelling that occurs throughout spermatogenesis...
April 5, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Yusuke Shiromoto, Satomi Kuramochi-Miyagawa, Ippei Nagamori, Shinichiro Chuma, Tatsuhiko Arakawa, Toru Nishimura, Hidetoshi Hasuwa, Taro Tachibana, Masahito Ikawa, Toru Nakano
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), a subclass of germ cell-specific non-coding small RNAs, are essential for de novo DNA methylation of retrotransposon genes in embryonic testes. PIWIL2/MILI, one of three mouse PIWI family members, is indispensable for piRNA production, DNA methylation of retrotransposons presumably via piRNA, and normal spermatogenesis. In vitro analysis using germ line stem cells (GS cells) revealed that glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 2 (GPAT2), which is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein involved in generation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and highly expressed in testes, plays important roles in spermatogenesis...
April 5, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Craig C Ulrich, Veronica Arinze, Carolina Bueno Wandscheer, Christian Copley Salem, Camellia Nabati, Neda Etezadi-Amoli, Heather R Burkin
INTRODUCTION: Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2/9) have previously been shown to be elevated in serum and amniotic fluid from women undergoing preterm birth. We performed experiments to determine the effects of MMP2/9 on uterine contraction and birth timing. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Pregnant mice were injected daily with 50 mg/kg of SB-3CT or vehicle control beginning on gestational day 14-18 to determine if MMP2/9 inhibition would affect parturition timing. MMP2/9 expression in human myometrial tissue was determined by Simple Western (Wes) and semi-quantitative western blot...
April 5, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
N Protopapas, L Hamilton, R Warkentin, W Xu, P Sutovsky, R Oko
The perinuclear theca (PT) is a cytosolic protein capsule that surrounds the nucleus of eutherian spermatozoa. Compositionally, it is divided into two regions: the subacrosomal layer (SAL) and the postacrosomal sheath (PAS). In falciform spermatozoa, a third region of the PT emerges that extends beyond the nuclear apex called the perforatorium. The formation of the SAL and PAS differ, with the former assembling early in spermiogenesis concomitant with acrosome formation, and the latter dependent on manchette descent during spermatid elongation...
April 2, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Bo-Yang Yu, Gerile Subudeng, Chen-Guang Du, Zhi-Hong Liu, Yu-Fen Zhao, Erge Namei, Yue Bai, Bing-Xue Yang, Hai-Jun Li
Plasminogen activator, tissue type (PLAT) and its inhibitor serpin family E member 1 (SERPINE1) cooperatively regulate PLAT activity in various reproductive processes. However, it is unknown whether this includes bovine oocyte maturation. We addressed this question in the present study by evaluating PLAT and SERPINE1 protein localization in immature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), as well as PLAT mRNA and protein expression in cultured COCs after 0, 8, 16, and 24 h of in vitro maturation (IVM). We also examined the effects of PLAT and SERPINE1 on germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and oocyte cyclic 3' 5' adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, cumulus expansion index, and expansion-related gene expression in oocytes derived from bovine COCs cultured for 4, 8, and 12 h and in COCs cultured for 16 h...
April 2, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
L Bergandi, S Canosa, G Pittatore, F Silvagno, S Doublier, G Gennarelli, C Benedetto, A Revelli
Breast cancer patients under 40 years of age who are candidate to chemotherapy with alkylating drugs may undergo controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with human recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rhFSH) in order to get fertility preservation by mature oocyte cryostorage. The direct effect(s) of exogenous rhFSH on the chemosensitivity of breast cancer is currently unknown. To clarify this issue, we incubated four different breast cancer cell lines with rhFSH (10 IU/L, 24h) and then we exposed them to doxorubicin (DOX) or cyclophosphamide (CPA)...
April 2, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Supipi Mirihagalle, Tianming You, Lois Suh, Chintan Patel, Liying Gao, Saniya Rattan, Huanyu Qiao
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a chemical that is widely used as a plasticizer. Exposure to DEHP has been shown to alter ovarian function in humans. Additionally, foods high in fat content, regularly found in the western diet, have been shown to be another potential disruptor of fetal ovarian function. Due to DEHP's lipophilicity, high-fat foods can be easily contaminated. Therefore, exposure to DEHP and a high-fat diet are both health concerns, especially in pregnant women, and the effects of these exposures on fetal oocyte quality and quantity should be elucidated...
April 2, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Kensuke Ichida, Wataru Kawamura, Misako Miwa, Yoshiko Iwasaki, Tsubasa Kubokawa, Makoto Hayashi, Ryosuke Yazawa, Goro Yoshizaki
During our previous work toward establishing surrogate broodstock that can produce donor-derived gametes by germ cell transplantation, we found that only type A spermatogonia (ASGs) have the potency to colonize recipient gonads. Therefore, the ability to visualize ASGs specifically would allow the sequential analysis of donor cell behavior in the recipient gonads. Here we produced monoclonal antibodies that could recognize the cell surface antigens of ASGs in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), with the aim of visualizing live ASGs...
April 1, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
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