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Biology of Reproduction | Page 2

Lauren E Carter, David P Cook, Olga Collins, Lisa F Gamwell, Holly A Dempster, Howard W Wong, Curtis W McCloskey, Ken Garson, Nhung H Vuong, Barbara C Vanderhyden
The ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) is a monolayer of cells surrounding the ovary that is ruptured during ovulation. After ovulation, the wound is repaired, however this process is poorly understood. In epithelial tissues, wound repair is mediated by an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1 (TGFβ1) is a cytokine commonly known to induce an EMT and is present throughout the ovarian microenvironment. We therefore hypothesized that TGFβ1 induces an EMT in OSE cells and activates signaling pathways important for wound repair...
July 26, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Jian Li, Wei-Ping Qian, Qing-Yuan Sun
Oocyte meiotic maturation is a vital and final process in oogenesis. Unlike somatic cells, the oocyte needs to undergo two continuous meiotic divisions (meiosis I and meiosis II) to become a haploid gamete. Notably, oocyte meiotic progression includes two rounds of unique meiotic arrest and resumption. The first arrest occurs at the G2 (germinal vesicle, GV) stage and meiosis resumption is stimulated by a gonadotropin surge; the second arrest takes place at the metaphase II stage, the stage from which it is released when fertilization takes place...
July 26, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Lin Huang, Lemeng Wang, Haili Bao, Yingchun Xu, Meiqing Meng, Manting Qiao, Haibin Wang, Shuangbo Kong
Dingkun Pill (DK) is one of the representative traditional Chinese medicines, which has been used in the treatment of gynecological diseases for hundreds of years. Accumulative observations and evidence have shown the beneficial effects of Dingkun Pill, including enhancing the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, the effects of Dingkun Pill on uterine receptivity and implantation were explored by a series of studies with different mouse models...
July 26, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
K Gegenfurtner, T Fröhlich, M Kösters, P Mermillod, Y Locatelli, S Fritz, P Salvetti, N Forde N, P Lonergan, E Wolf, G J Arnold
The oviduct plays a crucial role in fertilization and early embryo development providing the microenvironment for oocyte, spermatozoa, and early embryo. Since dairy cow fertility declined steadily over the last decades, reasons for early embryonic loss have gained increasing interest. Analyzing two animal models, this study aimed to investigate the impact of genetic predisposition for fertility as well as of metabolic stress on the protein composition of oviduct fluid (OF). A metabolic model comprised maiden Holstein heifers (MH) and postpartum lactating (Lact) and non-lactating (Dry) cows, while a genetic model consisted of heifers from the Montbéliarde (MBD) breed and Holstein heifers with low (LFH) and high (HFH) fertility index...
July 26, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Pavla Brachova, Nehemiah S Alvarez, Xiaoman Hong, Sumedha Gunewardena, Kailey A Vincent, Keith E Latham, Lane K Christenson
Mammalian oocytes and eggs are transcriptionally quiescent and depend on post-transcriptional mechanisms for proper maturation. Post-transcriptional mRNA modifications comprise an important regulatory mechanism that can alter protein and miRNA recognition sites, splicing, stability, secondary structure, and protein coding. We discovered that fully-grown mouse germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes and metaphase II (MII) eggs display abundant inosine mRNA modifications compared to growing oocytes from postnatal day 12 (PND12) oocytes...
July 26, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Jinying Yang, Yumian Lai, Juanhua Chen, Baohua Lin, Bei Zhou, Xinjia Han
To test the hypothesis that changes in α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) expression on macrophages and macrophage polarization participate in cervical remodeling during normal pregnancy, pregnant rats from gestational days (GDs) 14, 16, 18, 20, and 22 were used in the present study. The expression of α7nAChR on macrophages and the numbers of M1 and M2 macrophages were detected by double immunofluorescence staining. The levels of α7nAChR and collagens were detected by western blotting. M1 markers (inducible nitric oxide synthase, inflammatory cytokines) and M2 markers (arginase 1, anti-inflammatory cytokines) were detected to evaluate the macrophage polarization state by immunohistochemistry staining, western blotting, and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
July 25, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Umma Hafsa Preya, Jeong-Hwa Woo, Youn Seok Choi, Jung-Hye Choi
The overexpression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 beta (HNF1β) in endometriotic lesion has been demonstrated. However, the role of HNF1β in endometriosis remains largely unknown. Human endometriotic 12Z cells showed higher level of HNF1β when compared with normal endometrial HES cells. In human endometriotic 12Z cells, HNF1β knockdown increased susceptibility to apoptotic cell death by oxidative stress, while HNF1β overexpression suppressed apoptosis. In addition, HNF1β knockdown and overexpression significantly decreased and increased, respectively, the expression of NFκB-dependent anti-apoptotic genes...
July 19, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Guohui Shang, Xuyan Peng, Cheng Ji, Gang Zhai, Yonglin Ruan, Qiyong Lou, Xia Jin, Jiangyan He, Han Wang, Zhan Yin
In recent studies, luteinizing hormone (LH) was reported to play important roles in oocyte maturation. However, the mechanism by which LH signaling, especially regarding the steroidogenesis process, affects oocyte maturation has not been clarified. In this study, zebrafish models with a functional deficiency in luteinizing hormone beta (Lhb) or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (Star), an enzyme that promotes the transport of cholesterol into the inner mitochondrial membrane for maturation-induced hormone (MIH) production, were generated using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs)...
July 19, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Lorena Rodrigo, Marcos Meseguer, Emilia Mateu, Amparo Mercader, Vanessa Peinado, Lorena Bori, Inmaculada Campos-Galindo, Miguel Milán, Sandra García-Herrero, Carlos Simón, Carmen Rubio
In this work we reviewed 18 years of experience using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for sperm aneuploidy testing. We evaluated parameters associated with increased numerical sperm chromosome abnormalities and determined the male contribution to embryo aneploidies in terms of reproductive outcome by increased sperm aneuploidy. This retrospective study analyzed data from 2,008 sperm samples of infertile males undergoing FISH analysis because of clinical history of repetitive implantation faiure, recurrent miscarriage, impaired sperm parameters, or mixed causes...
July 18, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Lindsay S Cahill, Clare L Whitehead, Sebastian R Hobson, Greg Stortz, John C Kingdom, Ahmet Baschat, Kellie E Murphy, Lena Serghides, Christopher K Macgowan, John G Sled
Antenatal corticosteroids are often administered to women at risk of preterm birth to accelerate fetal lung development; however, there is evidence that this treatment may adversely affect placental function in some fetuses. Our group has recently demonstrated that wave reflections in the umbilical artery (UA), measured using high-frequency ultrasound, are sensitive to placental vascular abnormalities. In the present study, we used this approach to investigate the effect of maternal administration of betamethasone, a clinically relevant corticosteroid, on the feto-placental vasculature of the mouse...
July 18, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Adjimon G Lokossou, Caroline Toudic, Phuong Trang Nguyen, Xavier Elisseeff, Amandine Vargas, Éric Rassart, Julie Lafond, Line Leduc, Steve Bourgault, Caroline Gilbert, Tatiana Scorza, Jorge Tolosa, Benoit Barbeau
Modulation of the activation status of immune cell populations during pregnancy depends on placental villous cytotrophoblast (VCT) cells and the syncytiotrophoblast (STB) layer. Failure in the establishment of this immunoregulatory function leads to pregnancy complications. Our laboratory has been studying Syncytin-2 (Syn-2), an endogenous retroviral protein expressed in placenta and on the surface of placental exosomes. This protein plays an important role in STB formation through its fusogenic properties, but also possesses an active immunosuppressive domain (ISD)...
July 18, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Xiaosong Liu, Zelieann R Craig
Phthalates have a history of reproductive toxicity in animal models and associations with adverse reproductive outcomes in women. Human exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) occurs via consumer products (7-10 μg/kg/day) and medications (1-233 μg/kg/day). Most DBP toxicity studies have focused on high supraphysiological exposure levels, thus, very little is known about exposures occurring at environmentally relevant levels. CD-1 female mice (80 days old) were treated with tocopherol-stripped corn oil (vehicle control) or DBP dissolved in oil at environmentally relevant (10 and 100 μg/kg/day) or higher (1000 μg/kg/day) levels for 30 days to evaluate effects on DNA damage response (DDR) pathway genes and folliculogenesis...
July 18, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Zidao Wang, Ahmed E El Zowalaty, Yuehuan Li, Christian L Andersen, Xiaoqin Ye
TRPML1 (MCOLN1/Mcoln1) is a lysosomal counter ion channel. Mutations in MCOLN1 cause mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV), a progressive and severe lysosomal storage disorder with a slow onset. Mcoln1-/- mice recapitulate typical MLIV phenotypes but roles of TRPML1 in female reproduction are unknown. Despite normal mating activities, Mcoln1-/- female mice had reduced fertility at 2 months old and quickly became infertile at 5 months old. Progesterone deficiency was detected on 4.5 days post coitum/gestation day 4.5 (D4...
July 18, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Vera A van der Weijden, Brina Puntar, Alba Rudolf Vegas, Vladimir Milojevic, Corina I Schanzenbach, Mariusz P Kowalewski, Barbara Drews, Susanne E Ulbrich
Numerous intrauterine changes take place across species during embryo development. Following fertilization in July/August, the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) embryo undergoes diapause until embryonic elongation in December/January. Embryonic elongation prior to implantation is a common feature amongst ungulates. Unlike many other ruminants, the roe deer embryo does not secrete interferon-tau (IFNτ). This provides the unique opportunity to unravel IFNτ-independent signaling pathways associated with maternal-recognition of pregnancy...
July 18, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Boyang Shi, Huijie Lu, Lihong Zhang, Weimin Zhang
Nr5a1 (Sf-1) up-regulates lhb expression across vertebrates; however, its regulatory roles on fshb remain to be defined. Moreover, the involvement of Nr5a2 in the regulation of gonadotropin expression is not clear either. In the present study, the involvement of Nr5a1b (a homologue of Nr5a1) and Nr5a2 in the regulation of lhb and fshb expression in the orange-spotted grouper was examined. Dual fluorescent immunohistochemistry using homologous antisera showed that in the pituitary of orange-spotted groupers, Lh cells contain both immunoreactive Nr5a1b and Nr5a2 signals whereas Fsh cells contain neither of them...
July 17, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Nicole J Camlin, Janice P Evans
The disruption of protein expression is a major approach used for investigating protein function in mammalian oocytes. This is often achieved with RNAi/morpholino-mediated knockdown or gene knockout, leading to long-term loss of proteins of interest. However, these methods have noteworthy limitations, including (a) slow protein turnover can prohibit use of these approaches; (b) essential roles in early events precludes characterization of functions in subsequent events; (c) extended protein loss can allow time for compensatory mechanisms and other unanticipated events that confound interpretation of results...
July 12, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Katsuhiko Hayashi
Germ cell development is a series of highly specialized processes through which diploid pluripotent cells differentiate into haploid gametes. The processes include biologically important events such as epigenetic reprogramming, sex determination and meiosis. The mechanisms underlying these events are a key issue in reproductive and developmental biology, yet they still remain elusive. As a tool to elucidate these mechanisms, in vitro gametogenesis, which reproduces germ cell development in culture, has long been sought for decades...
July 11, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Bronwen R Herbert, Danijela Markovic, Ektoras Georgiou, Pei F Lai, Natasha Singh, Angela Yulia, Mark R Johnson
Although progesterone (P4) supplementation is the most widely used therapy for the prevention of preterm labor (PTL), reports of its clinical efficacy have been conflicting. We have previously shown that the anti-inflammatory effects of P4 can be enhanced by increasing intracellular cAMP levels in primary human myometrial cells. Here we have examined whether adding aminophylline (Am), a non-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor that increases intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, to P4 might improve its efficacy using in vivo and in vitro models of PTL...
July 11, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Narmada Lavu, Lauren Richardson, Enkhtuya Radnaa, Talar Kechichian, Rheanna Urrabaz-Garza, Samantha Sheller-Miller, Elizabeth Bonney, Ramkumar Menon
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress (OS) induced stress signaler p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) activation and fetal membrane senescence are associated with parturition. This study determined changes in Glycogen synthase kinase3β (GSK3β) and its regulation by p38MAPK in effecting senescence to further delineate the molecular mechanism involved in senescence. METHODS: Primary human amnion epithelial cells (AECs) and amnion mesenchymal cells (AMCs) were treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE, OS inducer)...
July 11, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Arlo Adams, Kang Mu Yoo, Wayne Vogl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 11, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
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