Journals Microbiology and Molecular Bio...

Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews : MMBR
John E Cronan
SUMMARYLipoic acid-modified proteins are essential for central metabolism and pathogenesis. In recent years, the Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis lipoyl assembly pathways have been modified and extended to archaea and diverse eukaryotes including humans. These extensions include a new pathway to insert the key sulfur atoms of lipoate, several new pathways of lipoate salvage, and a novel use of lipoic acid in sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Other advances are the modification of E. coli LplA for studies of protein localization and protein-protein interactions in cell biology and in enzymatic removal of lipoate from lipoyl proteins...
April 16, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Ousmane H Cissé, Liang Ma, Joseph A Kovacs
SUMMARYEvery human being is presumed to be infected by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii at least once in his or her lifetime. This fungus belongs to a large group of species that appear to exclusively infect mammals, with P. jirovecii being the only one known to cause disease in humans. The mystery of P. jirovecii origin and speciation is just beginning to unravel. Here, we provide a review of the major steps of P. jirovecii evolution. The Pneumocystis genus likely originated from soil or plant-associated organisms during the period of Cretaceous ~165 million years ago and successfully shifted to mammals...
April 8, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Mario Pedraza-Reyes, Karen Abundiz-Yañez, Alejandra Rangel-Mendoza, Lissett E Martínez, Rocío C Barajas-Ornelas, Mayra Cuéllar-Cruz, Hilda C Leyva-Sánchez, Víctor M Ayala-García, Luz I Valenzuela-García, Eduardo A Robleto
SUMMARY The metabolic conditions that prevail during bacterial growth have evolved with the faithful operation of repair systems that recognize and eliminate DNA lesions caused by intracellular and exogenous agents. This idea is supported by the low rate of spontaneous mutations (10-9 ) that occur in replicating cells, maintaining genome integrity. In contrast, when growth and/or replication cease, bacteria frequently process DNA lesions in an error-prone manner. DNA repairs provide cells with the tools needed for maintaining homeostasis during stressful conditions and depend on the developmental context in which repair events occur...
March 29, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Philip A Klenotic, Edward W Yu
SUMMARYInfectious bacteria have both intrinsic and acquired mechanisms to combat harmful biocides that enter the cell. Through adaptive pressures, many of these pathogens have become resistant to many, if not all, of the current antibiotics used today to treat these often deadly infections. One prominent mechanism is the upregulation of efflux systems, especially the resistance-nodulation-cell division class of exporters. These tripartite systems consist of an inner membrane transporter coupled with a periplasmic adaptor protein and an outer membrane channel to efficiently transport a diverse array of substrates from inside the cell to the extracellular space...
March 29, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
David R Soll
SUMMARY Candida albicans remains a major fungal pathogen colonizing humans and opportunistically invading tissue when conditions are predisposing. Part of the success of C. albicans was attributed to its capacity to form hyphae that facilitate tissue invasion. However, in 1987, a second developmental program was discovered, the "white-opaque transition," a high-frequency reversible switching system that impacted most aspects of the physiology, cell architecture, virulence, and gene expression of C. albicans ...
March 28, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Anushka C Wickramaratne, Sue Wickner, Andrea N Kravats
SUMMARYHeat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) participates in proteostasis by facilitating protein folding, activation, disaggregation, prevention of aggregation, degradation, and protection against degradation of various cellular proteins. It is highly conserved from bacteria to humans. In bacteria, protein remodeling by Hsp90 involves collaboration with the Hsp70 molecular chaperone and Hsp70 cochaperones. In eukaryotes, protein folding by Hsp90 is more complex and involves collaboration with many Hsp90 cochaperones as well as Hsp70 and Hsp70 cochaperones...
March 27, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Sangeetha Senthil Kumar, Michael D L Johnson, Justin E Wilson
SUMMARYThe genus Streptococcus consists of a taxonomically diverse group of Gram-positive bacteria that have earned significant scientific interest due to their physiological and pathogenic characteristics. Within the genus Streptococcus, viridans group streptococci (VGS) play a significant role in the oral ecosystem, constituting approximately 80% of the oral biofilm. Their primary role as pioneering colonizers in the oral cavity with multifaceted interactions like adherence, metabolic signaling, and quorum sensing contributes significantly to the complex dynamics of the oral biofilm, thus shaping oral health and disease outcomes...
March 20, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Jason D Zuke, Briana M Burton
SUMMARYNatural competence, the physiological state wherein bacteria produce proteins that mediate extracellular DNA transport into the cytosol and the subsequent recombination of DNA into the genome, is conserved across the bacterial domain. DNA must successfully translocate across formidable permeability barriers during import, including the cell membrane(s) and the cell wall, that are normally impermeable to large DNA polymers. This review will examine the mechanisms underlying DNA transport from the extracellular space to the cytoplasmic membrane...
March 11, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Marcia Shu-Wei Su, Yi-Lin Cheng, Yee-Shin Lin, Jiunn-Jong Wu
SUMMARYGroup A Streptococcus (GAS), also known as Streptococcus pyogenes , is a clinically well-adapted human pathogen that harbors rich virulence determinants contributing to a broad spectrum of diseases. GAS is capable of invading epithelial, endothelial, and professional phagocytic cells while evading host innate immune responses, including phagocytosis, selective autophagy, light chain 3-associated phagocytosis, and inflammation. However, without a more complete understanding of the different ways invasive GAS infections develop, it is difficult to appreciate how GAS survives and multiplies in host cells that have interactive immune networks...
March 7, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Carlos Lax, Francisco E Nicolás, Eusebio Navarro, Victoriano Garre
SUMMARYThe World Health Organization has established a fungal priority pathogens list that includes species critical or highly important to human health. Among them is the order Mucorales, a fungal group comprising at least 39 species responsible for the life-threatening infection known as mucormycosis. Despite the continuous rise in cases and the poor prognosis due to innate resistance to most antifungal drugs used in the clinic, Mucorales has received limited attention, partly because of the difficulties in performing genetic manipulations...
March 6, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Sébastien C Ortiz, Christina M Hull
SUMMARYSpores are primary infectious propagules for the majority of human fungal pathogens; however, relatively little is known about their fundamental biology. One strategy to address this deficiency has been to develop the basidiospores of Cryptococcus into a model for pathogenic spore biology. Here, we provide an update on the state of the field with a comprehensive review of the data generated from the study of Cryptococcus basidiospores from their formation (sporulation) and differentiation (germination) to their roles in pathogenesis...
March 5, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Kenneth W Nickerson, Daniel J Gutzmann, Cory H T Boone, Ruvini U Pathirana, Audrey L Atkin
SUMMARYFarnesol was first identified as a quorum-sensing molecule, which blocked the yeast to hyphal transition in Candida albicans , 22 years ago. However, its interactions with Candida biology are surprisingly complex. Exogenous (secreted or supplied) farnesol can also act as a virulence factor during pathogenesis and as a fungicidal agent triggering apoptosis in other competing fungi. Farnesol synthesis is turned off both during anaerobic growth and in opaque cells. Distinctly different cellular responses are observed as exogenous farnesol levels are increased from 0...
March 4, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Christopher J Harmer, Ruth M Hall
SUMMARY In Gram-negative bacteria, the insertion sequence IS 26 is highly active in disseminating antibiotic resistance genes. IS 26 can recruit a gene or group of genes into the mobile gene pool and support their continued dissemination to new locations by creating pseudo-compound transposons (PCTs) that can be further mobilized by the insertion sequence (IS). IS 26 can also enhance expression of adjacent potential resistance genes. IS 26 encodes a DDE transposase but has unique properties. It forms cointegrates between two separate DNA molecules using two mechanisms...
March 4, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Valérie de Crécy-Lagard, Geoffrey Hutinet, José D D Cediel-Becerra, Yifeng Yuan, Rémi Zallot, Marc G Chevrette, R M Madhushi N Ratnayake, Marshall Jaroch, Samia Quaiyum, Steven Bruner
SUMMARYDeazaguanine modifications play multifaceted roles in the molecular biology of DNA and tRNA, shaping diverse yet essential biological processes, including the nuanced fine-tuning of translation efficiency and the intricate modulation of codon-anticodon interactions. Beyond their roles in translation, deazaguanine modifications contribute to cellular stress resistance, self-nonself discrimination mechanisms, and host evasion defenses, directly modulating the adaptability of living organisms. Deazaguanine moieties extend beyond nucleic acid modifications, manifesting in the structural diversity of biologically active natural products...
February 29, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Sophie Bouillet, Taran S Bauer, Susan Gottesman
SUMMARYThe general stress response (GSR) is a widespread strategy developed by bacteria to adapt and respond to their changing environments. The GSR is induced by one or multiple simultaneous stresses, as well as during entry into stationary phase and leads to a global response that protects cells against multiple stresses. The alternative sigma factor RpoS is the central GSR regulator in E. coli and conserved in most γ-proteobacteria. In E. coli , RpoS is induced under conditions of nutrient deprivation and other stresses, primarily via the activation of RpoS translation and inhibition of RpoS proteolysis...
February 27, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Juan M Martínez-Andrade, Robert W Roberson, Meritxell Riquelme
SUMMARYThe endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is one of the most extensive organelles in eukaryotic cells. It performs crucial roles in protein and lipid synthesis and Ca2+ homeostasis. Most information on ER types, functions, organization, and domains comes from studies in uninucleate animal, plant, and yeast cells. In contrast, there is limited information on the multinucleate cells of filamentous fungi, i.e., hyphae. We provide an analytical review of existing literature to categorize different types of ER described in filamentous fungi while emphasizing the research techniques and markers used...
February 19, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Teresa Olczak, Michał Śmiga, Svetlana V Antonyuk, John W Smalley
SUMMARYHeme (iron protoporphyrin IX, FePPIX) is the main source of iron and PPIX for host-associated pathogenic bacteria, including members of the Bacteroidota (formerly Bacteroidetes) phylum. Porphyromonas gingivalis , a keystone oral pathogen, uses a unique heme uptake (Hmu) system, comprising a hemophore-like protein, designated as the first member of the novel HmuY family. Compared to classical, secreted hemophores utilized by Gram-negative bacteria or near-iron transporter domain-based hemophores utilized by Gram-positive bacteria, the HmuY family comprises structurally similar proteins that have undergone diversification during evolution...
February 2, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Sarah Ewald, Azadeh Nasuhidehnavi, Tzu-Yu Feng, Mahbobeh Lesani, Laura-Isobel McCall
SUMMARYProtozoan parasite infection dramatically alters host metabolism, driven by immunological demand and parasite manipulation strategies. Immunometabolic checkpoints are often exploited by kinetoplastid and protozoan parasites to establish chronic infection, which can significantly impair host metabolic homeostasis. The recent growth of tools to analyze metabolism is expanding our understanding of these questions. Here, we review and contrast host metabolic alterations that occur in vivo during infection with Leishmania , trypanosomes, Toxoplasma , Plasmodium, and Cryptosporidium ...
February 1, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Cathy Lordan, Aoife K Roche, Dianne Delsing, Arjen Nauta, Andre Groeneveld, John MacSharry, Paul D Cotter, Douwe van Sinderen
SUMMARYHuman milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are complex, multi-functional glycans present in human breast milk. They represent an intricate mix of heterogeneous structures which reach the infant intestine in an intact form as they resist gastrointestinal digestion. Therefore, they confer a multitude of benefits, directly and/or indirectly, to the developing neonate. Certain bifidobacterial species, being among the earliest gut colonizers of breast-fed infants, have an adapted functional capacity to metabolize various HMO structures...
January 11, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Geoffrey Michael Gadd, Marina Fomina, Flavia Pinzari
SUMMARYFungi are ubiquitous and important biosphere inhabitants, and their abilities to decompose, degrade, and otherwise transform a massive range of organic and inorganic substances, including plant organic matter, rocks, and minerals, underpin their major significance as biodeteriogens in the built environment and of cultural heritage. Fungi are often the most obvious agents of cultural heritage biodeterioration with effects ranging from discoloration, staining, and biofouling to destruction of building components, historical artifacts, and artwork...
January 5, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
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