Journals Microbiology and Molecular Bio...

Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews : MMBR
Michael M Cox, Myron F Goodman, James L Keck, Antoine van Oijen, Susan T Lovett, Andrew Robinson
When replication forks encounter template lesions, one result is lesion skipping, where the stalled DNA polymerase transiently stalls, disengages, and then reinitiates downstream to leave the lesion behind in a postreplication gap. Despite considerable attention in the 6 decades since postreplication gaps were discovered, the mechanisms by which postreplication gaps are generated and repaired remain highly enigmatic. This review focuses on postreplication gap generation and repair in the bacterium Escherichia coli...
May 22, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Narchonai Ganesan, Biswajit Mishra, LewisOscar Felix, Eleftherios Mylonakis
Clinical management of Staphylococcus aureus infections presents a challenge due to the high incidence, considerable virulence, and emergence of drug resistance mechanisms. The treatment of drug-resistant strains, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is further complicated by the development of tolerance and persistence to antimicrobial agents in clinical use. To address these challenges, membrane disruptors, that are not generally considered during drug discovery for agents against S. aureus, should be explored...
April 27, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Si Liu, Yanhong Han, Wan-Xiang Li, Shou-Wei Ding
Immune recognition of viral genome-derived double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules and their subsequent processing into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in plants, invertebrates, and mammals trigger specific antiviral immunity known as antiviral RNA interference (RNAi). Immune sensing of viral dsRNA is sequence-independent, and most regions of viral RNAs are targeted by virus-derived siRNAs which extensively overlap in sequence. Thus, the high mutation rates of viruses do not drive immune escape from antiviral RNAi, in contrast to other mechanisms involving specific virus recognition by host immune proteins such as antibodies and resistance (R) proteins in mammals and plants, respectively...
April 13, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Stephen E Noell, Ferdi L Hellweger, Ben Temperton, Stephen J Giovannoni
In this review, we consider the regulatory strategies of aquatic oligotrophs, microbial cells that are adapted to thrive under low-nutrient concentrations in oceans, lakes, and other aquatic ecosystems. Many reports have concluded that oligotrophs use less transcriptional regulation than copiotrophic cells, which are adapted to high nutrient concentrations and are far more common subjects for laboratory investigations of regulation. It is theorized that oligotrophs have retained alternate mechanisms of regulation, such as riboswitches, that provide shorter response times and smaller amplitude responses and require fewer cellular resources...
March 30, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Peter Setlow, Graham Christie
The quest for bacterial survival is exemplified by spores formed by some Firmicutes members. They turn up everywhere one looks, and their ubiquity reflects adaptations to the stresses bacteria face. Spores are impactful in public health, food safety, and biowarfare. Heat resistance is the hallmark of spores and is countered principally by a mineralized gel-like protoplast, termed the spore core, with reduced water which minimizes macromolecular movement/denaturation/aggregation. Dry heat, however, introduces mutations into spore DNA...
March 16, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Clifton P Bueno de Mesquita, Dongying Wu, Susannah G Tringe
Methyl-based methanogenesis is one of three broad categories of archaeal anaerobic methanogenesis, including both the methyl dismutation (methylotrophic) pathway and the methyl-reducing (also known as hydrogen-dependent methylotrophic) pathway. Methyl-based methanogenesis is increasingly recognized as an important source of methane in a variety of environments. Here, we provide an overview of methyl-based methanogenesis research, including the conditions under which methyl-based methanogenesis can be a dominant source of methane emissions, experimental methods for distinguishing different pathways of methane production, molecular details of the biochemical pathways involved, and the genes and organisms involved in these processes...
March 21, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Carol D Blair
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) persist in a natural cycle that includes infections of humans or other vertebrates and transmission between vertebrates by infected arthropods, most commonly mosquitos. Arboviruses can cause serious, sometimes fatal diseases in humans and other vertebrates but cause little pathology in their mosquito vectors. Knowledge of the interactions between mosquito vectors and the arboviruses that they transmit is an important facet of developing schemes to control transmission. Mosquito innate immune responses to virus infection modulate virus replication in the vector, and understanding the components and mechanisms of the immune response could lead to improved methods for interrupting the transmission cycle...
March 21, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Lorenzo Eugenio Leiva, Victor Zegarra, Gert Bange, Michael Ibba
Nucleotides are at the heart of the most essential biological processes in the cell, be it as key protagonists in the dogma of molecular biology or by regulating multiple metabolic pathways. The dynamic nature of nucleotides, the cross talk between them, and their constant feedback to and from the cell's metabolic state position them as a hallmark of adaption toward environmental and growth challenges. It has become increasingly clear how the activity of RNA polymerase, the synthesis and maintenance of tRNAs, mRNA translation at all stages, and the biogenesis and assembly of ribosomes are fine-tuned by the pools of intracellular nucleotides...
February 28, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Benoît Arcangioli, Serge Gangloff
Schizosaccharomyces pombe is an ascomycete fungus that divides by medial fission; it is thus commonly referred to as fission yeast, as opposed to the distantly related budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reproductive lifestyle of S. pombe relies on an efficient genetic sex determination system generating a 1:1 sex ratio and using alternating haploid/diploid phases in response to environmental conditions. In this review, we address how one haploid cell manages to generate two sister cells with opposite mating types, a prerequisite to conjugation and meiosis...
January 11, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Corrella S Detweiler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2022: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Minou Nowrousian
Fungal fruiting bodies are complex, three-dimensional structures that arise from a less complex vegetative mycelium. Their formation requires the coordinated action of many genes and their gene products, and fruiting body formation is accompanied by major changes in the transcriptome. In recent years, numerous transcription factor genes as well as chromatin modifier genes that play a role in fruiting body morphogenesis were identified, and through research on several model organisms, the underlying regulatory networks that integrate chromatin structure, gene expression, and cell differentiation are becoming clearer...
December 21, 2022: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Marie Schöpping, Ahmad A Zeidan, Carl Johan Franzén
Bifidobacteria naturally inhabit diverse environments, including the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. Members of the genus are of considerable scientific interest due to their beneficial effects on health and, hence, their potential to be used as probiotics. By definition, probiotic cells need to be viable despite being exposed to several stressors in the course of their production, storage, and administration. Examples of common stressors encountered by probiotic bifidobacteria include oxygen, acid, and bile salts...
December 21, 2022: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Taisuke Seike, Hironori Niki
Most ascomycete fungi, including the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, secrete two peptidyl mating pheromones: C-terminally modified and unmodified peptides. S. pombe has two mating types, plus and minus, which secrete two different pheromones, P-factor (unmodified) and M-factor (modified), respectively. These pheromones are specifically recognized by receptors on the cell surface of cells of opposite mating types, which trigger a pheromone response. Recognition between pheromones and their corresponding receptors is important for mate discrimination; therefore, genetic changes in pheromone or receptor genes affect mate recognition and cause reproductive isolation that limits gene flow between populations...
December 5, 2022: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Ramya Ganesan, Jürgen C Wierz, Martin Kaltenpoth, Laura V Flórez
Beneficial associations with bacteria are widespread across animals, spanning a range of symbiont localizations, transmission routes, and functions. While some of these associations have evolved into obligate relationships with permanent symbiont localization within the host, the majority require colonization of every host generation from the environment or via maternal provisions. Across the broad diversity of host species and tissue types that beneficial bacteria can colonize, there are some highly specialized strategies for establishment yet also some common patterns in the molecular basis of colonization...
October 27, 2022: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Giulia Puntin, Michael Sweet, Sebastian Fraune, Mónica Medina, Koty Sharp, Virginia M Weis, Maren Ziegler
Stony corals build the framework of coral reefs, ecosystems of immense ecological and economic importance. The existence of these ecosystems is threatened by climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that manifest in microbial dysbiosis such as coral bleaching and disease, often leading to coral mortality. Despite a significant amount of research, the mechanisms ultimately underlying these destructive phenomena, and what could prevent or mitigate them, remain to be resolved. This is mostly due to practical challenges in experimentation on corals and the highly complex nature of the coral holobiont that also includes bacteria, archaea, protists, and viruses...
October 26, 2022: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Bin Zhu, Zhi Tao, Laahirie Edupuganti, Myrna G Serrano, Gregory A Buck
The microbiome of the female reproductive tract defies the convention that high biodiversity is a hallmark of an optimal ecosystem. Although not universally true, a homogeneous vaginal microbiome composed of species of Lactobacillus is generally associated with health, whereas vaginal microbiomes consisting of other taxa are generally associated with dysbiosis and a higher risk of disease. The past decade has seen a rapid advancement in our understanding of these unique biosystems. Of particular interest, substantial effort has been devoted to deciphering how members of the microbiome of the female reproductive tract impact pregnancy, with a focus on adverse outcomes, including but not limited to preterm birth...
October 12, 2022: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Michael Feiss, Ryland Young, Jolene Ramsey, Sankar Adhya, Costa Georgopoulos, Roger W Hendrix, Graham F Hatfull, Eddie B Gilcrease, Sherwood R Casjens
Laboratory-generated hybrids between phage λ and related phages played a seminal role in establishment of the λ model system, which, in turn, served to develop many of the foundational concepts of molecular biology, including gene structure and control. Important λ hybrids with phages 21 and 434 were the earliest of such phages. To understand the biology of these hybrids in full detail, we determined the complete genome sequences of phages 21 and 434. Although both genomes are canonical members of the λ-like phage family, they both carry unsuspected bacterial virulence gene types not previously described in this group of phages...
September 27, 2022: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Rokas Juodeikis, Simon R Carding
This review focuses on nonlytic outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), a subtype of bacterial extracellular vesicles (BEVs) produced by Gram-negative organisms focusing on the mechanisms of their biogenesis, cargo, and function. Throughout, we highlight issues concerning the characterization of OMVs and distinguishing them from other types of BEVs. We also highlight the shortcomings of commonly used methodologies for the study of BEVs that impact the interpretation of their functionality and suggest solutions to standardize protocols for OMV studies...
September 26, 2022: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Clara Lambert, Claire Poyart, Alexandra Gruss, Agnes Fouet
Phospholipids are vital membrane constituents that determine cell functions and interactions with the environment. For bacterial pathogens, rapid adjustment of phospholipid composition to changing conditions during infection can be crucial for growth and survival. Fatty acid synthesis (FASII) regulators are central to this process. This review puts the spotlight on FabT, a MarR-family regulator of FASII characterized in streptococci, enterococci, and lactococci. Roles of FabT in virulence, as reported in mouse and nonhuman primate infection models, will be discussed...
September 21, 2022: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Jui-Yu Chou, Po-Chen Hsu, Jun-Yi Leu
Understanding the molecular basis of speciation is a primary goal in evolutionary biology. The formation of the postzygotic reproductive isolation that causes hybrid dysfunction, thereby reducing gene flow between diverging populations, is crucial for speciation. Using various advanced approaches, including chromosome replacement, hybrid introgression and transcriptomics, population genomics, and experimental evolution, scientists have revealed multiple mechanisms involved in postzygotic barriers in the fungal kingdom...
September 13, 2022: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
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