Journals Microbiology and Molecular Bio...

Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews : MMBR
Juan M Martínez-Andrade, Robert W Roberson, Meritxell Riquelme
SUMMARYThe endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is one of the most extensive organelles in eukaryotic cells. It performs crucial roles in protein and lipid synthesis and Ca2+ homeostasis. Most information on ER types, functions, organization, and domains comes from studies in uninucleate animal, plant, and yeast cells. In contrast, there is limited information on the multinucleate cells of filamentous fungi, i.e., hyphae. We provide an analytical review of existing literature to categorize different types of ER described in filamentous fungi while emphasizing the research techniques and markers used...
February 19, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Teresa Olczak, Michał Śmiga, Svetlana V Antonyuk, John W Smalley
SUMMARYHeme (iron protoporphyrin IX, FePPIX) is the main source of iron and PPIX for host-associated pathogenic bacteria, including members of the Bacteroidota (formerly Bacteroidetes) phylum. Porphyromonas gingivalis , a keystone oral pathogen, uses a unique heme uptake (Hmu) system, comprising a hemophore-like protein, designated as the first member of the novel HmuY family. Compared to classical, secreted hemophores utilized by Gram-negative bacteria or near-iron transporter domain-based hemophores utilized by Gram-positive bacteria, the HmuY family comprises structurally similar proteins that have undergone diversification during evolution...
February 2, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Sarah Ewald, Azadeh Nasuhidehnavi, Tzu-Yu Feng, Mahbobeh Lesani, Laura-Isobel McCall
SUMMARYProtozoan parasite infection dramatically alters host metabolism, driven by immunological demand and parasite manipulation strategies. Immunometabolic checkpoints are often exploited by kinetoplastid and protozoan parasites to establish chronic infection, which can significantly impair host metabolic homeostasis. The recent growth of tools to analyze metabolism is expanding our understanding of these questions. Here, we review and contrast host metabolic alterations that occur in vivo during infection with Leishmania , trypanosomes, Toxoplasma , Plasmodium, and Cryptosporidium ...
February 1, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Cathy Lordan, Aoife K Roche, Dianne Delsing, Arjen Nauta, Andre Groeneveld, John MacSharry, Paul D Cotter, Douwe van Sinderen
SUMMARYHuman milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are complex, multi-functional glycans present in human breast milk. They represent an intricate mix of heterogeneous structures which reach the infant intestine in an intact form as they resist gastrointestinal digestion. Therefore, they confer a multitude of benefits, directly and/or indirectly, to the developing neonate. Certain bifidobacterial species, being among the earliest gut colonizers of breast-fed infants, have an adapted functional capacity to metabolize various HMO structures...
January 11, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Geoffrey Michael Gadd, Marina Fomina, Flavia Pinzari
SUMMARYFungi are ubiquitous and important biosphere inhabitants, and their abilities to decompose, degrade, and otherwise transform a massive range of organic and inorganic substances, including plant organic matter, rocks, and minerals, underpin their major significance as biodeteriogens in the built environment and of cultural heritage. Fungi are often the most obvious agents of cultural heritage biodeterioration with effects ranging from discoloration, staining, and biofouling to destruction of building components, historical artifacts, and artwork...
January 5, 2024: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Gerald W Tannock
SUMMARYThe microbial community inhabiting the human colon, referred to as the gut microbiota, is mostly composed of bacterial species that, through extensive metabolic networking, degrade and ferment components of food and human secretions. The taxonomic composition of the microbiota has been extensively investigated in metagenomic studies that have also revealed details of molecular processes by which common components of the human diet are metabolized by specific members of the microbiota. Most studies of the gut microbiota aim to detect deviations in microbiota composition in patients relative to controls in the hope of showing that some diseases and conditions are due to or exacerbated by alterations to the gut microbiota...
December 21, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Corrella Detweiler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Roberto Docampo
SUMMARYAcidocalcisomes are organelles conserved during evolution and closely related to the so-called volutin granules of bacteria and archaea, to the acidocalcisome-like vacuoles of yeasts, and to the lysosome-related organelles of animal species. All these organelles have in common their acidity and high content of polyphosphate and calcium. They are characterized by a variety of functions from storage of phosphorus and calcium to roles in Ca2+ signaling, osmoregulation, blood coagulation, and inflammation...
December 15, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Susan K Amundsen, Gerald R Smith
SUMMARYRecBCD enzyme is a multi-functional protein that initiates the major pathway of homologous genetic recombination and DNA double-strand break repair in Escherichia coli . It is also required for high cell viability and aids proper DNA replication. This 330-kDa, three-subunit enzyme is one of the fastest, most processive helicases known and contains a potent nuclease controlled by Chi sites, hotspots of recombination, in DNA. RecBCD undergoes major changes in activity and conformation when, during DNA unwinding, it encounters Chi (5'-GCTGGTGG-3') and nicks DNA nearby...
December 4, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Megan S Hill, Jack A Gilbert
SUMMARYOver the past decade, hundreds of studies have characterized the microbial communities found in human-associated built environments (BEs). These have focused primarily on how the design and use of our built spaces have shaped human-microbe interactions and how the differential selection of certain taxa or genetic traits has influenced health outcomes. It is now known that the more removed humans are from the natural environment, the greater the risk for the development of autoimmune and allergic diseases, and that indoor spaces can be harsh, selective environments that can increase the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant and virulent phenotypes in surface-bound communities...
December 4, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Manon Lang, André Carvalho, Zeynep Baharoglu, Didier Mazel
SUMMARYAminoglycosides (AGs) are long-known molecules successfully used against Gram-negative pathogens. While their use declined with the discovery of new antibiotics, they are now classified as critically important molecules because of their effectiveness against multidrug-resistant bacteria. While they can efficiently cross the Gram-negative envelope, the mechanism of AG entry is still incompletely understood, although this comprehension is essential for the development of new therapies in the face of the alarming increase in antibiotic resistance...
December 4, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Buzz Baum, Anja Spang
SUMMARYIn this hypothesis article, we explore the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus. In doing so, we first look afresh at the nature of this defining feature of the eukaryotic cell and its core functions-emphasizing the utility of seeing the eukaryotic nucleoplasm and cytoplasm as distinct regions of a common compartment. We then discuss recent progress in understanding the evolution of the eukaryotic cell from archaeal and bacterial ancestors, focusing on phylogenetic and experimental data which have revealed that many eukaryotic machines with nuclear activities have archaeal counterparts...
November 29, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Mireille Bétermier, Lawrence A Klobutcher, Eduardo Orias
SUMMARYCiliated protozoa undergo large-scale developmental rearrangement of their somatic genomes when forming a new transcriptionally active macronucleus during conjugation. This process includes the fragmentation of chromosomes derived from the germline, coupled with the efficient healing of the broken ends by de novo telomere addition. Here, we review what is known of developmental chromosome fragmentation in ciliates that have been well-studied at the molecular level ( Tetrahymena , Paramecium , Euplotes , Stylonychia , and Oxytricha )...
November 27, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Katherine L Cotten, Kimberly Michele Davis
SUMMARYAntibiotic persistence, or the ability of small subsets of bacteria to survive prolonged antibiotic treatment, is an underappreciated cause of antibiotic treatment failure. Over the past decade, researchers have discovered multiple different stress responses and mechanisms that can promote antibiotic persistence. However, many of these studies have been completed in culture-based systems that fail to truly replicate the complexities of the host environment, and it is unclear whether the mechanisms defined in in vitro studies are applicable during host infection...
November 14, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Sebastian Dan Burz, Senka Causevic, Alma Dal Co, Marija Dmitrijeva, Philipp Engel, Daniel Garrido-Sanz, Gilbert Greub, Siegfried Hapfelmeier, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt, Vassily Hatzimanikatis, Clara Margot Heiman, Mathias Klaus-Maria Herzog, Alyson Hockenberry, Christoph Keel, Andreas Keppler, Soon-Jae Lee, Julien Luneau, Lukas Malfertheiner, Sara Mitri, Bidong Ngyuen, Omid Oftadeh, Alan R Pacheco, François Peaudecerf, Grégory Resch, Hans-Joachim Ruscheweyh, Asli Sahin, Ian R Sanders, Emma Slack, Shinichi Sunagawa, Janko Tackmann, Robin Tecon, Giovanni Stefano Ugolini, Jordan Vacheron, Jan Roelof van der Meer, Evangelia Vayena, Pascale Vonaesch, Julia A Vorholt
SUMMARYCommunities of microorganisms (microbiota) are present in all habitats on Earth and are relevant for agriculture, health, and climate. Deciphering the mechanisms that determine microbiota dynamics and functioning within the context of their respective environments or hosts (the microbiomes) is crucially important. However, the sheer taxonomic, metabolic, functional, and spatial complexity of most microbiomes poses substantial challenges to advancing our knowledge of these mechanisms. While nucleic acid sequencing technologies can chart microbiota composition with high precision, we mostly lack information about the functional roles and interactions of each strain present in a given microbiome...
November 10, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Angelique E Ray, Dana Z Tribbia, Don A Cowan, Belinda C Ferrari
SUMMARYAtmospheric chemosynthesis is a recently proposed form of chemoautotrophic microbial primary production. The proposed process relies on the oxidation of trace concentrations of hydrogen (≤530 ppbv), carbon monoxide (≤90 ppbv), and methane (≤1,870 ppbv) gases using high-affinity enzymes. Atmospheric hydrogen and carbon monoxide oxidation have been primarily linked to microbial growth in desert surface soils scarce in liquid water and organic nutrients, and low in photosynthetic communities...
November 1, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Huifang Zhu, Chunfu Zheng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Kimberly R Sabsay, Aartjan J W Te Velthuis
Negative and ambisense RNA viruses are the causative agents of important human diseases such as influenza, measles, Lassa fever, and Ebola hemorrhagic fever. The viral genome of these RNA viruses consists of one or more single-stranded RNA molecules that are encapsidated by viral nucleocapsid proteins to form a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP). This RNP acts as protection, as a scaffold for RNA folding, and as the context for viral replication and transcription by a viral RNA polymerase. However, the roles of the viral nucleoproteins extend beyond these functions during the viral infection cycle...
September 26, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Sooin Jang, Alan N Engelman
The HIV-1 capsid, composed of approximately 1,200 copies of the capsid protein, encases genomic RNA alongside viral nucleocapsid, reverse transcriptase, and integrase proteins. After cell entry, the capsid interacts with a myriad of host factors to traverse the cell cytoplasm, pass through the nuclear pore complex (NPC), and then traffic to chromosomal sites for viral DNA integration. Integration may very well require the dissolution of the capsid, but where and when this uncoating event occurs remains hotly debated...
September 26, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Alan S Cross
Infections with antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria pose an increasing threat to the ability to perform surgical procedures, organ transplantation, and treat cancer among many other medical conditions. There are few new antimicrobials in the development pipeline. Vaccines against AMR Gram-negative bacteria may reduce the use of antimicrobials and prevent bacterial transmission. This review traces the origins of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-based vaccines against Gram-negative bacteria, the role of O polysaccharides and LPS core regions as potential vaccine targets, the development of new vaccine technologies, and their application to vaccines in current development...
July 11, 2023: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
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