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Nicolette M Du Plessis, Chris J B Muller, Theunis Avenant, Michael S Pepper, Ameena E Goga
BACKGROUND: Early HIV testing is needed for treatment success in young infants, but universal testing is expensive. In this study, we examined the feasibility of early infant HIV risk scores for targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and early HIV diagnosis. METHODS: A cross-sectional cohort of newborns exposed to HIV was enrolled and PCR tested within 72 hours. We quantified associations between HIV infection and clinical and laboratory maternal-infant parameters by logistic regression models and determined sensitivity and specificity for derived risk scores...
May 17, 2019: Pediatrics
Mark F Cotton, Helena Rabie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2019: Pediatrics
Moshe Y Prero, Meghan Strenk, Jeremy Garrett, Ann Kessler, Jonathan M Fanaroff, John D Lantos
One of the most common dilemmas faced by physicians and genetic counselors is the discovery of misattributed paternity. In this article, we present a case in which misattributed paternity was discovered as an incidental finding. Experts analyze the competing moral obligations that might dictate disclosure or nondisclosure.
May 16, 2019: Pediatrics
Flory L Nkoy, Bernhard A Fassl, Victoria L Wilkins, Joseph Johnson, Eun Hea Unsicker, Karmella J Koopmeiners, Andrea Jensen, Michelle Frazier, Jordan Gaddis, Lis Malmgren, Stacey Williams, Heather Oldroyd, Tom Greene, Xiaoming Sheng, Derek A Uchida, Christopher G Maloney, Bryan L Stone
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pediatric ambulatory asthma control is suboptimal, reducing quality of life (QoL) and causing emergency department (ED) and hospital admissions. We assessed the impact of the electronic-AsthmaTracker (e-AT), a self-monitoring application for children with asthma. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with matched controls. Participants were enrolled January 2014 to December 2015 in 11 pediatric clinics for weekly e-AT use for 1 year. Analyses included: (1) longitudinal changes for the child (QoL, asthma control, and interrupted and missed school days) and parents (interrupted and missed work days and satisfaction), (2) comparing ED and hospital admissions and oral corticosteroid (OCS) use pre- and postintervention, and (3) comparing ED and hospital admissions and OCS use between e-AT users and matched controls...
May 16, 2019: Pediatrics
Colleen L Barry, Alene Kennedy-Hendricks, David Mandell, Andrew J Epstein, Molly Candon, Matthew Eisenberg
OBJECTIVES: Most states have passed insurance mandates requiring health plans to cover services for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Research reveals that these mandates increased treated prevalence, service use, and spending on ASD-related care. As employer-sponsored insurance shifts toward high-deductible health plans (HDHPs), it is important to understand how mandates affect children with ASD in HDHPs relative to traditional, low-deductible plans. METHODS: Insurance claims for 2008-2012 for children covered by 3 large US insurers (United Healthcare, Aetna, and Humana) available through the Health Care Cost Institute were used to compare the effects of mandates on ASD-related spending for children in HDHPs and traditional health plans...
May 15, 2019: Pediatrics
David Keller, Ann Reynolds
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2019: Pediatrics
Kyle A Davis, Anudeep K Dodeja, Abigail Clark, Kan Hor, Peter Baker, Linda H Cripe, Timothy P Cripe
Cardiac rhabdomyoma is the most common neonatal cardiac tumor and is typically associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Although these tumors may naturally regress, some patients require surgical resection because of cardiac instability. If not fully resected, patients may also require medical therapy to improve their hemodynamics. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, has shown promise in reducing rhabdomyoma in patients with TSC, but the drug's impact in patients without TSC has not been reported...
May 14, 2019: Pediatrics
Rachel S Gross, Alan L Mendelsohn, Mayela M Arana, Mary Jo Messito
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy, infancy, and toddlerhood are sensitive times in which families are particularly vulnerable to household food insecurity and when disparities in child obesity emerge. Understanding obesity-promoting infant-feeding beliefs, styles, and practices in the context of food insecurity could better inform both food insecurity and child obesity prevention interventions and policy guidelines. METHODS: We performed purposive sampling of low-income Hispanic mothers ( n = 100) with infants in the first 2 years of life, all of whom were participants in a randomized controlled trial of an early child obesity prevention intervention called the Starting Early Program...
May 14, 2019: Pediatrics
Elizabeth R Boskey, Judith A Johnson, Charlotte Harrison, Jonathan M Marron, Leah Abecassis, Allison Scobie-Carroll, Julian Willard, David A Diamond, Amir H Taghinia, Oren Ganor
As part of establishing a gender surgery center at a pediatric academic hospital, we undertook a process of identifying key ethical, legal, and contextual issues through collaboration among clinical providers, review by hospital leadership, discussions with key staff and hospital support services, consultation with the hospital's ethics committee, outreach to other institutions providing transgender health care, and meetings with hospital legal counsel. This process allowed the center to identify key issues, formulate approaches to resolving those issues, and develop policies and procedures addressing stakeholder concerns...
May 13, 2019: Pediatrics
Mark L Hatzenbuehler, Yishan Shen, Elizabeth A Vandewater, Stephen T Russell
BACKGROUND: Bias-based bullying is associated with negative outcomes for youth, but its contextual predictors are largely unknown. Voter referenda that target lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender groups may be 1 contextual factor contributing to homophobic bullying. METHODS: Data come from 14 consecutive waves (2001-2014) of cross-sectional surveys of students participating in the California Healthy Kids Survey ( N = 4 977 557). Student responses were aggregated to the school level ( n = 5121)...
May 13, 2019: Pediatrics
Valerie A Earnshaw, Camila M Mateo, Sari L Reisner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 13, 2019: Pediatrics
Scott F Leibowitz, John D Lantos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 13, 2019: Pediatrics
Zachary Y Kerr, Karen G Roos, Andrew E Lincoln, Sarah Morris, Susan W Yeargin, Jon Grant, Tracey Covassin, Thomas Dodge, Vincent C Nittoli, James Mensch, Sara L Quetant, Erin B Wasserman, Thomas P Dompier, Shane V Caswell
BACKGROUND: We compared injury incidence and mechanisms among youth, high school (HS), and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) boys' and men's lacrosse athletes for the 2014-2015 to 2016-2017 lacrosse seasons. METHODS: Multiple injury surveillance systems were used to capture 21 youth boys', 22 HS boys', and 20 NCAA men's lacrosse team-seasons of data during the 2014-2015 to 2016-2017 seasons. Athletic trainers reported game and practice injuries and athlete exposures (AEs)...
May 10, 2019: Pediatrics
Alice Cavolo, Bernadette Dierckx de Casterlé, Gunnar Naulaers, Chris Gastmans
CONTEXT: Whether to resuscitate extremely premature infants (EPIs) is a clinically and ethically difficult decision to make. Indications and practices vary greatly across different countries and institutions, which suggests that resuscitation decisions may be influenced more by the attitudes of the individual treating physicians. Hence, gaining in-depth insight into physicians' attitudes improves our understanding of decision-making regarding resuscitation of EPIs. OBJECTIVE: To better understand physicians' attitudes toward resuscitation of EPIs and factors that influence their attitudes through a systematic review of the empirical literature...
May 10, 2019: Pediatrics
Tonya Arscott-Mills, Brianna Ter Haar, Jacqueline Firth, Maneesh Batra, David Githanga, Virginia A Moyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2019: Pediatrics
Courtney M Brown, Zeina M Samaan, Allison Glance, Amy Haering, Brookleigh Steele, Nicholas Newman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Lead exposure remains common and is associated with adverse intellectual and behavioral outcomes. Despite quality improvement used to increase screening rates, clinical response to elevated lead levels remains variable. Our aim was to increase provider adherence to published guidelines for addressing elevated lead levels. METHODS: We created a protocol for addressing elevated lead levels on the basis of published guidelines. The protocol included ordering multivitamins with iron and follow-up lead testing, educating families about identifying and reducing sources of lead exposure, and referring to a specialty environmental health clinic when indicated...
May 9, 2019: Pediatrics
Aymeric Amelot, Guillaume Saliou, Sandro Benichi, Quentin Alias, Grégoire Boulouis, Michel Zerah, Nozar Aghakhani, Augustin Ozanne, Thomas Blauwblomme, Olivier Naggara
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to report the long-term clinical and imaging outcomes of ≤15-year-old children treated for ruptured or symptomatic cerebral aneurysms and to identify prognostic factors for clinical outcome, recurrence, and rebleeding. METHODS: We retrospectively identified all pediatric cases of cerebral aneurysm from 2000 to 2015 and then prospectively evaluated long-term occlusion using brain MRI and clinical outcome measures: outcome was considered favorable if King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury score was ≥5...
May 8, 2019: Pediatrics
Mitali Sahni, Yanick Vibert, Vineet Bhandari, Ogechukwu Menkiti
Naphthalene poisoning due to exposure to mothballs is a common cause of toxicity in children worldwide. Naphthalene toxicity is known to cause hemolytic anemia, methemoglobinemia, and hepatic and renal injury. Neonates are more susceptible to the effects of oxidative stress from naphthalene because of their low glutathione stores and immaturity of hepatic enzymes. However, there are no reported cases of chronic fetal exposure to naphthalene during pregnancy. We report a novel case of chronic fetal exposure to naphthalene-containing mothballs that occurred from the second trimester through the third trimester of pregnancy...
May 7, 2019: Pediatrics
H Theodore Harcke, Luke L Lawrence, Emily W Gripp, Heidi H Kecskemethy, Richard W Kruse, Stephen G Murphy
BACKGROUND: Gunshot injuries are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. The Pediatric Trauma Society supports the use of tourniquets for exsanguinating hemorrhage in severe extremity trauma. The Combat Application Tourniquet (CAT) used with success in adults has not been prospectively tested in children. Our objective with this study was to determine if the CAT is successful in arresting extremity arterial blood flow in school-aged children. METHODS: Sixty school-aged volunteers (ages 6-16 years) recruited by age cohort had the CAT applied to an upper arm and thigh while peripheral pulse was monitored by Doppler...
May 7, 2019: Pediatrics
Charles L Snyder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2019: Pediatrics
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