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Jenny Raman, Tiffani J Johnson, Katie Hayes, Fran Balamuth
OBJECTIVES: We assessed racial differences in sepsis recognition in a pediatric emergency department (ED) with an established electronic sepsis alert system. METHODS: Quality-improvement data from June 1, 2016 to May 31, 2017 was used in this retrospective cohort study. All ED visits were included for non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients. The sepsis pathway was activated through the alert, 2 stages and a huddle, or outside of the alert using clinician judgment alone...
September 13, 2019: Pediatrics
Rashida Hassan, Sharon Seelman, Vi Peralta, Hillary Booth, Mackenzie Tewell, Beth Melius, Brooke Whitney, Rosemary Sexton, Asha Dwarka, Duc Vugia, Jeff Vidanes, David Kiang, Elysia Gonzales, Natasha Dowell, Samantha M Olson, Lori M Gladney, Michael A Jhung, Karen P Neil
BACKGROUND: In 2017, we conducted a multistate investigation to determine the source of an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 infections, which occurred primarily in children. METHODS: We defined a case as infection with an outbreak strain of STEC O157:H7 with illness onset between January 1, 2017, and April 30, 2017. Case patients were interviewed to identify common exposures. Traceback and facility investigations were conducted; food samples were tested for STEC...
September 13, 2019: Pediatrics
Shannon H Baumer-Mouradian, Matthew P Gray, Peter M Wolfgram, Matthew Kopetsky, Franklin Chang, David C Brousseau, Mogen M Frenkel, Catherine C Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic delays in the pediatric emergency department (ED) can lead to unnecessary interventions and prolonged ED length of stay (LOS), especially in patients with diabetes mellitus evaluated for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). At our institution, baseline DKA determination time (arrival to diagnosis) was 86 minutes, and 61% of patients did not meet DKA criteria. Subsequently, intravenous (IV) placement occurred in 85% of patients without DKA. We aimed to use point-of-care (POC) testing to reduce DKA determination time from 86 to 30 minutes and to reduce IV placements in patients without DKA from 85% to 20% over 18 months...
September 12, 2019: Pediatrics
Sonia A Monteiro, Jack Dempsey, Leandra N Berry, Robert G Voigt, Robin P Goin-Kochel
OBJECTIVES: To examine screening practices for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), subsequent referrals, and diagnostic outcomes within a large network of primary pediatric care practices. METHODS: Rates of ASD screening with the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) at 18- and 24-month well-child visits were examined among 290 primary care providers within 54 pediatric practices between June 2014 and June 2016. Demographic, referral, and diagnostic data were abstracted from the medical records for all children who failed the M-CHAT (ie, score of ≥3) at either or both visits...
September 12, 2019: Pediatrics
Tania Ahluwalia, Shobhit Jain, Laura Norton, Jennifer Meade, Jana Etherton-Still, Angela Myers
BACKGROUND: Although pharyngitis is common, group A Streptococcus is an uncommon etiology, and sequelae are rare in patients <3 years old. Inappropriate testing leads to increased cost of health care and unnecessary exposure to antibiotics. Rapid streptococcal tests (RSTs) for group A Streptococcus pharyngitis are not routinely indicated in this age group. At our urban, tertiary pediatric emergency department (ED), on average, 20 RSTs were performed each month for patients <3 years of age...
September 11, 2019: Pediatrics
Ramrada Lekwuttikarn, Shellie Josephs, Joyce M Teng
Hepatic hemangioma (HH) is a common asymptomatic, self-limiting benign vascular tumor of the liver in neonates. Although complicated HHs are rare, they have significant risks of morbidity and mortality, especially during the perinatal period. Because of the high risks of complications from surgical interventions, there is an unmet need for effective medical therapy. We report 2 neonates with life-threatening HH who were evaluated for a liver transplant before being treated successfully with combined medical therapy, which included sirolimus, corticosteroids, and propranolol...
September 11, 2019: Pediatrics
Anita Raj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 10, 2019: Pediatrics
Amy J Starmer, Mary Pat Frintner, Kenneth Matos, Chloe Somberg, Gary Freed, Bobbi J Byrne
BACKGROUND: Physicians must balance career and home responsibilities, yet previous studies on work-life balance are focused primarily on work-based tasks. We examined gender discrepancies and factors related to household responsibilities and work-life balance among pediatricians. METHODS: We used 2015 data from the American Academy of Pediatrics Pediatrician Life and Career Experience Study, a longitudinal study of early-career pediatricians. χ2 tests and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine the effects of gender on household responsibilities, satisfaction, and work-life balance attainment...
September 10, 2019: Pediatrics
Nathan R Hoot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 10, 2019: Pediatrics
Mary Pat Frintner, Blake Sisk, Bobbi J Byrne, Gary L Freed, Amy J Starmer, Lynn M Olson
BACKGROUND: The US physician workforce includes an increasing number of women, with pediatrics having the highest percentage. In recent research on physicians, it is indicated that men earn more than women. It is unclear how this finding extends to pediatricians. METHODS: We examined cross-sectional 2016 data on earnings from the American Academy of Pediatrics Pediatrician Life and Career Experience Study, a longitudinal study of early- and midcareer pediatricians...
September 10, 2019: Pediatrics
Alon Peltz, Arvin Garg
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fifteen percent of US children live in households with inadequate food. Children who are food insecure often experience worse physical, emotional, and developmental health outcomes. Authors of previous studies have not examined the quality and cost implications of food insecurity in children. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 7959 nationally representative US children (aged 1-17 years) in the 2016 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey...
September 9, 2019: Pediatrics
Preeti Panda, Anjali Garg
The following is the winning submission from the third annual Section on Pediatric Trainees essay competition. This year's competition was informed by the 2018-2019 Section on Pediatric Trainees Advocacy Campaign: Advocacy Adventure, which empowered trainees to find their areas of passion, acquire and polish new skills, and organize advocacy efforts collaboratively. We asked writers to share experiences as physician advocates and were impressed with the broad variety of important topics submitted by trainees from around the country...
September 9, 2019: Pediatrics
Margaret M C Thomas, Daniel P Miller, Taryn W Morrissey
OBJECTIVES: Food insecurity is an important public health problem facing children in the United States. Although a number of previous studies suggest that food insecurity has negative impacts on health, these studies have not dealt thoroughly with issues of selection bias. We use propensity scoring techniques to approximate the causal effects of food insecurity on children's health and health care use outcomes. METHODS: We use nationally representative data from the 2013-2016 waves of the National Health Interview Study ( N = 29 341)...
September 9, 2019: Pediatrics
Joshua T B Williams, Abraham M Nussbaum, Sean T O'Leary
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2019: Pediatrics
Rachel S Gross, Alan L Mendelsohn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2019: Pediatrics
Chloe R Drennen, Sharon M Coleman, Stephanie Ettinger de Cuba, Deborah A Frank, Mariana Chilton, John T Cook, Diana B Cutts, Timothy Heeren, Patrick H Casey, Maureen M Black
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Food insecurity and pediatric obesity affect young children. We examine how food insecurity relates to obesity, underweight, stunting, health, and development among children <4 years of age. METHODS: Caregivers of young children participated in a cross-sectional survey at medical centers in 5 US cities. Inclusion criteria were age of <48 months. Exclusion criteria were severely ill or injured and private health insurance. The Household Food Security Survey Module defined 3 exposure groups: food secure, household food insecure and child food secure, and household food insecure and child food insecure...
September 9, 2019: Pediatrics
Rama J Wahab, Sytske A Beth, Ivonne P M Derks, Pauline W Jansen, Henriëtte A Moll, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Celiac disease (CeD) is associated with psychopathology in children. It is unknown whether this association is present in children with celiac disease autoimmunity (CDA) identified by screening. We examined the associations between subclinical CDA and emotional and behavioral problems in children without previous CeD diagnosis. METHODS: In a population-based cohort study of 3715 children (median age: 6 years), blood titers of tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies were analyzed...
September 6, 2019: Pediatrics
Laura B Smith, Kalle Kurppa, Daniel Agardh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2019: Pediatrics
Ammar Saadoon Alishlash, Thomas Prescott Atkinson, Charles Schlappi, Sixto M Leal, Ken B Waites, Li Xiao
Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia is prevalent in children and can be followed by upper airway carriage for months. Treatment of M pneumoniae pneumonia with macrolides is widespread and can lead to the development of macrolide resistance. The clinical consequences of chronic M pneumoniae carriage are unknown. In this article, we describe a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed macrolide-susceptible M pneumoniae pneumonia confirmed by nasopharyngeal secretions polymerase chain reaction and culture with good response to azithromycin...
September 5, 2019: Pediatrics
Sriram Ramgopal, Kathleen A Noorbakhsh, Clifton W Callaway, Paria M Wilson, Raymond D Pitetti
BACKGROUND: In May 2016, the American Academy of Pediatrics published a clinical practice guideline for brief resolved unexplained events (BRUEs). We evaluated for changes in the management of BRUE after guideline publication. METHODS: Using a pediatric multicenter administrative database, we compared rates of admission, testing, revisits, and diagnoses in patients diagnosed with a BRUE or apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) during 2017 with rates of admission, testing, revisits, and diagnoses in patients diagnosed with ALTE during 2015...
September 5, 2019: Pediatrics
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