Laura E Kuper, Sunita Stewart, Stephanie Preston, May Lau, Ximena Lopez
OBJECTIVES: Our first aim was to examine baseline differences in body dissatisfaction, depression, and anxiety symptoms by gender, age, and Tanner (ie, pubertal) stage. Our second aim was to test for changes in youth symptoms over the first year of receiving gender-affirming hormone therapy. Our third aim was to examine potential differences in change over time by demographic and treatment characteristics. Youth experiences of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) are also reported...
March 27, 2020: Pediatrics
Brittany M Lee, Amy Trowbridge, Macallagh McEvoy, Aaron Wightman, Stephanie A Kraft, Jonna D Clark
The American Academy of Neurology believes that doctors have the right to do tests to evaluate whether a patient is brain dead even if the family does not consent. They argue that physicians have "both the moral authority and professional responsibility" to do such evaluations, just as they have the authority and responsibility to declare someone dead by circulatory criteria. Not everyone agrees. Truog and Tasker argue that apnea testing to confirm brain death has risks and that, for some families, those risks may outweigh the benefits...
March 27, 2020: Pediatrics
Eric S Mull, Guliz Erdem, Kathleen Nicol, Brent Adler, Richard Shell
Idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition that is defined by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and fever in the presence of pulmonary eosinophilia. It often presents acutely in previously healthy individuals and can be difficult to distinguish from infectious pneumonia. Although the exact etiology of idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia remains unknown, an acute hypersensitivity reaction to an inhaled antigen is suggested, which is further supported by recent public health risks of vaping (electronic cigarette) use and the development of lung disease...
March 26, 2020: Pediatrics
Karen M Barlow, Brian L Brooks, Michael J Esser, Adam Kirton, Angelo Mikrogianakis, Roger L Zemek, Frank P MacMaster, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Keith Owen Yeates, Valerie Kirk, James S Hutchison, Susan Crawford, Brenda Turley, Candice Cameron, Michael D Hill, Tina Samuel, Jeffrey Buchhalter, Lawrence Richer, Robert Platt, Roslyn Boyd, Deborah Dewey
BACKGROUND: Approximately 25% of children with concussion have persistent postconcussive symptoms (PPCS) with resultant significant impacts on quality of life. Melatonin has significant neuroprotective properties, and promising preclinical data suggest its potential to improve outcomes after traumatic brain injury. We hypothesized that treatment with melatonin would result in a greater decrease in PPCS symptoms when compared with a placebo. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial of 3 or 10 mg of melatonin compared with a placebo (NCT01874847)...
March 26, 2020: Pediatrics
Steven A Bondi, Suk-Fong S Tang, Robin L Altman, Jonathan M Fanaroff, William M McDonnell, John W Rusher
BACKGROUND: Pediatricians are less frequently sued than other physicians. When suits are successful, however, the average payout is higher. Little is known about changes in the risk of litigation over time. We sought to characterize malpractice lawsuit trends for pediatricians over time. METHODS: The Periodic Survey is a national random sample survey of American Academy of Pediatrics members. Seven surveys between 1987 and 2015 asked questions regarding malpractice ( n = 5731)...
March 25, 2020: Pediatrics
S Sonia Arteaga, Matthew W Gillman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2020: Pediatrics
Markus Juonala, Feitong Wu, Alan Sinaiko, Jessica G Woo, Elaine M Urbina, David Jacobs, Julia Steinberger, Ronald Prineas, Juha Koskinen, Matthew A Sabin, David P Burgner, Trudy L Burns, Lydia Bazzano, Alison Venn, Jorma S A Viikari, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Stephen R Daniels, Terence Dwyer, Olli T Raitakari, Costan G Magnussen
BACKGROUND: Elevated non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are used to identify children at increased cardiovascular risk, but the use of non-HDL-C in childhood to predict atherosclerosis is unclear. We examined whether the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute classification of youth non-HDL-C status predicts high common carotid artery intima-media thickness in adulthood. METHODS: We analyzed data from 4 prospective cohorts among 4582 children aged 3 to 19 years who were remeasured as adults (mean follow-up of 26 years)...
March 24, 2020: Pediatrics
Tomi T Laitinen, Joel Nuotio, Suvi P Rovio, Harri Niinikoski, Markus Juonala, Costan G Magnussen, Eero Jokinen, Hanna Lagström, Antti Jula, Jorma S A Viikari, Tapani Rönnemaa, Olli Simell, Olli T Raitakari, Katja Pahkala
BACKGROUND: The association of dietary fat distribution with markers of subclinical atherosclerosis during early life is unknown. We examined whether success in achieving the main target of an infancy-onset dietary intervention based on the distribution of dietary fat was associated with aortic and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and distensibility from childhood to young adulthood. METHODS: In the prospective randomized controlled Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project trial, personalized dietary counseling was given biannually to healthy children from infancy to young adulthood...
March 24, 2020: Pediatrics
Todd W Lyons, Aris C Garro, Andrea T Cruz, Stephen B Freedman, Pamela J Okada, Prashant Mahajan, Fran Balamuth, Amy D Thompson, Dina M Kulik, Neil G Uspal, Joseph L Arms, Lise E Nigrovic
BACKGROUND: The ability of the decades-old Boston and Philadelphia criteria to accurately identify infants at low risk for serious bacterial infections has not been recently reevaluated. METHODS: We assembled a multicenter cohort of infants 29 to 60 days of age who had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood cultures obtained. We report the performance of the modified Boston criteria (peripheral white blood cell count [WBC] ≥20 000 cells per mm3 , CSF WBC ≥10 cells per mm3 , and urinalysis with >10 WBC per high-power field or positive urine dip result) and modified Philadelphia criteria (peripheral WBC ≥15 000 cells per mm3 , CSF WBC ≥8 cells per mm3 , positive CSF Gram-stain result, and urinalysis with >10 WBC per high-power field or positive urine dip result) for the identification of invasive bacterial infections (IBIs)...
March 23, 2020: Pediatrics
Kimberly D Ernst
It is crucial that all children are provided with high-quality and safe health care. Pediatric inpatient needs are unique in regard to policies, equipment, facilities, and personnel. The intent of this clinical report is to provide recommendations for the resources necessary to provide high-quality and safe pediatric inpatient medical care.
March 23, 2020: Pediatrics
Sandeep K Narang, Amanda Fingarson, James Lukefahr
Abusive head trauma (AHT) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population, especially in young infants. In the past decade, advancements in research have refined medical understanding of the epidemiological, clinical, biomechanical, and pathologic factors comprising the diagnosis, thereby enhancing clinical detection of a challenging diagnostic entity. Failure to recognize AHT and respond appropriately at any step in the process, from medical diagnosis to child protection and legal decision-making, can place children at risk...
March 23, 2020: Pediatrics
Brian S Donahue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2020: Pediatrics
Ruchika Goel, Cassandra D Josephson, Eshan U Patel, Molly R Petersen, Sarah Makhani, Steven M Frank, Paul M Ness, Evan M Bloch, Eric A Gehrie, Parvez M Lokhandwala, Marianne M Nellis, Oliver Karam, Beth H Shaz, Ravi M Patel, Aaron A R Tobian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Annual incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) including postoperative VTE in hospitalized children is rising significantly. A growing body of evidence supports the role of red blood cells (RBCs) in pathologic thrombosis. In this study, we examined the association of perioperative RBC transfusion with postoperative VTE in pediatric patients. METHODS: The pediatric databases of the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Project from 2012 to 2017 were used...
March 20, 2020: Pediatrics
Amy O'Rourke, Amy Zimmerman, Hayley Platt, Andrea A Pappalardo
Asthma is a significant public health issue, impacting quality of life, morbidity, and health care costs nationally. Stock asthma rescue medication policies authorize school districts to maintain unassigned albuterol and enable trained staff members to administer the medication in response to asthma symptoms, exercise premedication, and asthma emergencies. Stock asthma rescue (or reliever) medication laws serve as an important fail-safe measure. Such laws provide districts with the ability to respond if a student has an asthma emergency at school but either lacks a diagnosis or does not have access to their own medication...
March 19, 2020: Pediatrics
Beverly S Brozanski, Anthony J Piazza, John Chuo, Girija Natarajan, Theresa R Grover, Joan R Smith, Teresa Mingrone, Richard E McClead, Rao Rakesh, Natalie Rintoul, Judy Guidash, Bobby Bellflower, Margaret Holston, Troy Richardson, Eugenia K Pallotto
OBJECTIVES: Reduce postoperative hypothermia by up to 50% over a 12-month period in children's hospital NICUs and identify specific clinical practices that impact success. METHODS: Literature review, expert opinion, and benchmarking were used to develop clinical practice recommendations for maintaining perioperative euthermia that included the following: established euthermia before transport to the operating room (OR), standardized practice for maintaining euthermia on transport to and from the OR, and standardized practice to prevent intraoperative heat loss...
March 19, 2020: Pediatrics
Julie Ware, Yvette Piovanetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2020: Pediatrics
Michelle A Eilers, C Emily Hendrick, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla, Daniel A Powers, Joseph E Potter
BACKGROUND: Mexican-origin women breastfeed at similar rates as white women in the United States, yet they usually breastfeed for less time. In our study, we seek to identify differences in Mexican-origin women's breastfeeding intentions, initiation, continuation, and supplementation across nativity and country-of-education groups. METHODS: The data are from a prospective cohort study of postpartum women ages 18 to 44 recruited from 8 Texas hospitals. We included 1235 Mexican-origin women who were born and educated in either Texas or Mexico...
March 18, 2020: Pediatrics
Elena Conis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2020: Pediatrics
Holly B Fontenot, Sean R Cahill, Timothy Wang, Sophia Geffen, Bradley P White, Sari Reisner, Kerith Conron, Christopher R Harper, Michelle M Johns, Sabrina A Avripas, Stuart Michaels, Richard Dunville
BACKGROUND: In the United States, transgender youth are at especially high risk for HIV infection. Literature regarding HIV prevention strategies for this vulnerable, often-hidden population is scant. Before effective, population-based HIV prevention strategies may be adequately developed, it is necessary to first enhance the contextual understanding of transgender youth HIV risk and experiences with HIV preventive services. METHODS: Two 3-day, online, asynchronous focus groups were conducted with transgender youth from across the United States to better understand participant HIV risk and experiences with HIV preventive services...
March 17, 2020: Pediatrics
Matthew J Lipshaw, Michelle Eckerle, Todd A Florin, Eric J Crotty, Jessi Lipscomb, Judd Jacobs, Mantosh S Rattan, Richard M Ruddy, Samir S Shah, Lilliam Ambroggio
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic therapy is often prescribed for suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children despite a lack of knowledge of causative pathogen. Our objective in this study was to investigate the association between antibiotic prescription and treatment failure in children with suspected CAP who are discharged from the hospital emergency department (ED). METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of children (ages 3 months-18 years) who were discharged from the ED with suspected CAP...
March 16, 2020: Pediatrics
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