Pediatrics | Page 2

Patrick M Carter, April M Zeoli, Monika K Goyal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2019: Pediatrics
Lava R Timsina, Nan Qiao, Alejandro C Mongalo, Ashley N Vetor, Aaron E Carroll, Teresa M Bell
BACKGROUND: Despite being unable to purchase firearms directly, many adolescents have access to guns, leading to increased risk of injury and death. We sought to determine if the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) changed adolescents' gun-carrying behavior. METHODS: We performed a repeated cross-sectional study using National Youth Risk Behavior Survey data from years 1993 to 2017. We used a survey-weighted multivariable logistic regression model to determine if the NICS had an effect on adolescent gun carrying, controlling for state respondent characteristics, state laws, state characteristics, the interaction between the NICS and state gun laws, and time...
December 2, 2019: Pediatrics
Heather E Hsu, Francisca Abanyie, Michael S D Agus, Fran Balamuth, Patrick W Brady, Richard J Brilli, Joseph A Carcillo, Raymund Dantes, Lauren Epstein, Anthony E Fiore, Jeffrey S Gerber, Runa H Gokhale, Benny L Joyner, Niranjan Kissoon, Michael Klompas, Grace M Lee, Charles G Macias, Karen M Puopolo, Carmen D Sulton, Scott L Weiss, Chanu Rhee
Pediatric sepsis is a major public health concern, and robust surveillance tools are needed to characterize its incidence, outcomes, and trends. The increasing use of electronic health records (EHRs) in the United States creates an opportunity to conduct reliable, pragmatic, and generalizable population-level surveillance using routinely collected clinical data rather than administrative claims or resource-intensive chart review. In 2015, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recruited sepsis investigators and representatives of key professional societies to develop an approach to adult sepsis surveillance using clinical data recorded in EHRs...
November 27, 2019: Pediatrics
Andrew S Handel, Harriet Hellman, Saul R Hymes
Neonatal tick bites place infants at risk for acquiring infections that have rarely or never been documented in this age group. We describe 2 rare cases of tickborne infection in neonates. The first patient presented with multiple erythema migrans and fever, leading to a diagnosis of early disseminated Lyme disease. The second patient presented with irritability, fever, and worsening anemia due to babesiosis. Both infants had been bitten by arthropods fitting the description of ticks before the onset of symptoms...
November 27, 2019: Pediatrics
Whitney E Harrington, Sayonara Mató, Lauri Burroughs, Paul A Carpenter, Anne Gershon, D Scott Schmid, Janet A Englund
The live-attenuated varicella vaccine, a routine immunization in the United States since 1995, is both safe and effective. Like wild-type varicella-zoster virus, however, vaccine Oka (vOka) varicella can establish latency and reactivate as herpes zoster, rarely leading to serious disease, particularly among immunocompromised hosts. Previous cases of reactivated vOka resulting in meningitis have been described in young children who received a single dose of varicella vaccine; less is known about vOka reactivation in older children after the 2-dose vaccine series...
November 27, 2019: Pediatrics
Lise E Nigrovic, Nathan Kuppermann
In our state-of-the-art review, we summarize the best-available evidence for the optimal emergency department management of children with minor blunt head trauma. Minor blunt head trauma in children is a common reason for emergency department evaluation, although clinically important traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) as a result are uncommon. Cranial computed tomography (CT) scanning is the reference standard for the diagnosis of TBIs, although they should be used judiciously because of the risk of lethal malignancy from ionizing radiation exposure, with the greatest risk to the youngest children...
November 26, 2019: Pediatrics
Julie Uchitel, Errol Alden, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Jeffrey Goldhagen, Aditee Pradhan Narayan, Shanti Raman, Nick Spencer, Donald Wertlieb, Jane Wettach, Sue Woolfenden, Mohamad A Mikati
Millions of children are subjected to abuse, neglect, and displacement, and millions more are at risk for not achieving their developmental potential. Although there is a global movement to change this, driven by children's rights, progress is slow and impeded by political considerations. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, a global comprehensive commitment to children's rights ratified by all countries in the world except the United States (because of concerns about impingement on sovereignty and parental authority), has a special General Comment on "Implementing Child Rights in Early Childhood...
November 26, 2019: Pediatrics
Steven A Bondi, James Scibilia
An estimated 8.7 million children live in a household with a substance-using parent or guardian. Substance-using caretakers may have impaired judgment that can negatively affect their child's well-being, including his or her ability to receive appropriate medical care. Although the physician-patient relationship exists between the pediatrician and the child, obligations related to safety and confidentiality should be considered as well. In managing encounters with impaired caretakers who may become disruptive or dangerous, pediatricians should be aware of their responsibilities before acting...
November 25, 2019: Pediatrics
Margaret Jones, Sandhya Kistamgari, Gary A Smith
OBJECTIVES: To investigate nonpowder firearm injuries treated in US emergency departments among children <18 years old. METHODS: National Electronic Injury Surveillance System data from 1990 through 2016 were analyzed. RESULTS: An estimated 364 133 (95% confidence interval 314 540-413 727) children <18 years old were treated in US emergency departments for injuries related to nonpowder firearms from 1990 to 2016, averaging 13 486 children annually...
November 25, 2019: Pediatrics
Mark R Corkins
Aluminum has no known biological function; however, it is a contaminant present in most foods and medications. Aluminum is excreted by the renal system, and patients with renal diseases should avoid aluminum-containing medications. Studies demonstrating long-term toxicity from the aluminum content in parenteral nutrition components led the US Food and Drug Administration to implement rules for these solutions. Large-volume ingredients were required to reduce the aluminum concentration, and small-volume components were required to be labeled with the aluminum concentration...
November 25, 2019: Pediatrics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2019: Pediatrics
Véronique Gingras, Izzuddin M Aris, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Karen M Switkowski, Emily Oken, Marie-France Hivert
This study examines associations of timing of CF introduction with adiposity throughout childhood and adolescence in the US Project Viva prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of the timing of complementary feeding (CF) introduction with adiposity throughout childhood. METHODS: We studied 1013 children from Project Viva. Our exposure was CF introduction, categorized as <4 months (19%), 4 to <6 months (68%; reference group), and ≥6 months of age (14%)...
November 22, 2019: Pediatrics
Ana Cristina Carvalho da Costa, Nayara Narley Pires Vieira, Christiane Inocêncio Vasques, Elaine Barros Ferreira, Eliete Neves Silva Guerra, Paula Elaine Diniz Dos Reis
CONTEXT: Thrombotic occlusion is 1 of the most frequent complications in catheters implanted in children. OBJECTIVE: To identify the interventions used to treat thrombotic events in long-term central venous catheters in pediatric patients with cancer. DATA SOURCES: Electronic searches were performed in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, LIVIVO, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, OpenGrey, and ProQuest databases...
November 22, 2019: Pediatrics
Huong Q McLean, Walter A Orenstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2019: Pediatrics
Michelle Science, Rachel Savage, Alberto Severini, Elizabeth McLachlan, Stephanie L Hughes, Callum Arnold, Susan Richardson, Natasha Crowcroft, Shelley Deeks, Scott Halperin, Kevin Brown, Todd Hatchette, Jonathan Gubbay, Tony Mazzulli, Shelly Bolotin
BACKGROUND: Infants are often assumed to be immune to measles through maternal antibodies transferred during pregnancy and, in many countries, receive their first measles-containing vaccine at 12 to 15 months. Immunity may wane before this time in measles-eliminated settings, placing infants at risk for measles and complications. We investigated humoral immunity to measles in infants <12 months of age in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We selected sera collected at a tertiary pediatric hospital from infants <12 months who were born at ≥37 weeks' gestational age...
November 21, 2019: Pediatrics
Kavita Parikh, Karen Perry, Candice Pantor, Catherine Gardner
BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations in children are a leading cause of missed school days and health care use. Patients discharged from the hospital often do not fill discharge prescriptions and are at risk for future exacerbations. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team aimed to increase the percentage of patients discharged from the hospital after an asthma exacerbation with their medications in-hand from 15% to 80%. Tools from the model of improvement were used to establish a process map, key driver diagram, and iterative plan-do-study-act cycles...
November 21, 2019: Pediatrics
Harriet Kitzman, David L Olds, Michael D Knudtson, Robert Cole, Elizabeth Anson, Joyce A Smith, Diana Fishbein, Ralph DiClemente, Gina Wingood, Angela M Caliendo, Christian Hopfer, Ted Miller, Gabriella Conti
OBJECTIVES: Given earlier effects found in randomized clinical trials of the Nurse-Family Partnership, we examined whether this program would improve 18-year-old first-born youths' cognition, academic achievement, and behavior and whether effects on cognitive-related outcomes would be greater for youth born to mothers with limited psychological resources (LPR) and on arrests and convictions among females. METHODS: We enrolled 742 pregnant, low-income women with no previous live births and randomly assigned them to receive either free transportation for prenatal care plus child development screening and referral (control; n = 514) or prenatal and infant home nurse visit (NV) plus transportation and screening ( n = 228)...
November 20, 2019: Pediatrics
David L Olds, Harriet Kitzman, Elizabeth Anson, Joyce A Smith, Michael D Knudtson, Ted Miller, Robert Cole, Christian Hopfer, Gabriella Conti
BACKGROUND: Prenatal and infancy home-visiting by nurses is promoted as a means of improving maternal life-course, but evidence of long-term effects is limited. We hypothesized that nurse-visitation would lead to long-term reductions in public-benefit costs, maternal substance abuse and depression, and that cost-savings would be greater for mothers with initially higher psychological resources. METHODS: We conducted an 18-year follow-up of 618 out of 742 low-income, primarily African-American mothers with no previous live births enrolled in an randomized clinical trial of prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses...
November 20, 2019: Pediatrics
Kenneth A Dodge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2019: Pediatrics
R Colin Carter, Joseph L Jacobson, Sandra W Jacobson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 19, 2019: Pediatrics
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