Lancet Infectious Diseases

Angharad G Davis, Robert J Wilkinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 7, 2020: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Joseph Donovan, Do Dang Anh Thu, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Vu Thi Mong Dung, Tran Phu Quang, Ho Dang Trung Nghia, Pham Kieu Nguyet Oanh, Tran Bao Nhu, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Vu Thi Ngoc Ha, Vu Thi Ty Hang, Dong Huu Khanh Trinh, Ronald B Geskus, Le Van Tan, Nguyen Thuy Thuong Thuong, Guy E Thwaites
BACKGROUND: Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) might have higher sensitivity than its predecessor, Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert), but its role in tuberculous meningitis diagnosis is uncertain. We aimed to compare Xpert Ultra with Xpert for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected adults. METHODS: In this prospective, randomised, diagnostic accuracy study, adults (≥16 years) with suspected tuberculous meningitis from a single centre in Vietnam were randomly assigned to cerebrospinal fluid testing by either Xpert Ultra or Xpert at baseline and, if treated for tuberculous meningitis, after 3-4 weeks of treatment...
January 7, 2020: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Hans Helmut Niller, Klemens Angstwurm, Dennis Rubbenstroth, Kore Schlottau, Arnt Ebinger, Sebastian Giese, Silke Wunderlich, Bernhard Banas, Leonie F Forth, Donata Hoffmann, Dirk Höper, Martin Schwemmle, Dennis Tappe, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Daniel Nobach, Christiane Herden, Christoph Brochhausen, Natalia Velez-Char, Andreas Mamilos, Kirsten Utpatel, Matthias Evert, Saida Zoubaa, Markus J Riemenschneider, Viktoria Ruf, Jochen Herms, Georg Rieder, Mario Errath, Kaspar Matiasek, Jürgen Schlegel, Friederike Liesche-Starnecker, Bernhard Neumann, Kornelius Fuchs, Ralf A Linker, Bernd Salzberger, Tobias Freilinger, Lisa Gartner, Jürgen J Wenzel, Udo Reischl, Wolfgang Jilg, André Gessner, Jonathan Jantsch, Martin Beer, Barbara Schmidt
BACKGROUND: In 2018-19, Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1), the causative agent of Borna disease in horses, sheep, and other domestic mammals, was reported in five human patients with severe to fatal encephalitis in Germany. However, information on case frequencies, clinical courses, and detailed epidemiological analyses are still lacking. We report the occurrence of BoDV-1-associated encephalitis in cases submitted to the Institute of Clinical Microbiology and Hygiene, Regensburg University Hospital, Regensburg, Germany, and provide a detailed description of newly identified cases of BoDV-1-induced encephalitis...
January 7, 2020: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Fiona V Cresswell, Lillian Tugume, Nathan C Bahr, Richard Kwizera, Ananta S Bangdiwala, Abdu K Musubire, Morris Rutakingirwa, Enock Kagimu, Edwin Nuwagira, Edward Mpoza, Joshua Rhein, Darlisha A Williams, Conrad Muzoora, Daniel Grint, Alison M Elliott, David B Meya, David R Boulware
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculous meningitis accounts for 1-5% of tuberculosis cases. Diagnostic delay contributes to poor outcomes. We evaluated the performance of the new Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) for tuberculous meningitis diagnosis. METHODS: In this prospective validation study, we tested the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of adults presenting with suspected meningitis (ie, headache or altered mental status with clinical signs of meningism) to the Mulago National Referral Hospital and Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda...
January 7, 2020: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Tomoyuki Honda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 7, 2020: Lancet Infectious Diseases
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 23, 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Andreas K Lindner, Veerle Lejon, François Chappuis, Jorge Seixas, Leon Kazumba, Michael P Barrett, Erick Mwamba, Olema Erphas, Elie A Akl, Gemma Villanueva, Hanna Bergman, Pere Simarro, Augustin Kadima Ebeja, Gerardo Priotto, Jose Ramon Franco
Human African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is a parasitic infection that usually progresses to coma and death unless treated. WHO has updated its guidelines for the treatment of this infection on the basis of independent literature reviews and using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology. The first-line treatment options, pentamidine and nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy, have been expanded to include fexinidazole, an oral monotherapy given a positive opinion from the European Medicines Agency...
December 23, 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Raquel Burger-Calderon, Fausto Bustos Carrillo, Lionel Gresh, Sergio Ojeda, Nery Sanchez, Miguel Plazaola, Leah Katzelnick, Brenda Lopez Mercado, Jairo Carey Monterrey, Douglas Elizondo, Sonia Arguello, Andrea Nuñez, Aubree Gordon, Angel Balmaseda, Guillermina Kuan, Eva Harris
BACKGROUND: Paedeatric Zika remains an understudied topic. WHO and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Zika case definitions have not been assessed in children. We aimed to characterise clinical profiles and evaluate the diagnostic performance of the WHO and PAHO case definitions in a large cohort of paediatric Zika cases. METHODS: From January, 2016 to February, 2017, encompassing the major 2016 Zika epidemic, participants in the Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study (PDCS) in Managua, Nicaragua, were encouraged to visit the study health centre at first indication of any illness...
December 20, 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Maël Bessaud, Francis Delpeyroux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Laura Bubba, Eeva K Broberg, Aftab Jasir, Peter Simmonds, Heli Harvala
BACKGROUND: Enteroviruses can cause severe infections, especially in young children. Non-polio enterovirus infections are not notifiable in most countries in the EU and European Economic Area (EEA) region, and surveillance varies substantially between countries. We collected and analysed available enterovirus data across EU and EEA countries to assess the current epidemiological situation and need for standardising surveillance. METHODS: Aggregated data on any enterovirus detected between Jan 1, 2015, and Dec 31, 2017, through national enterovirus reference laboratories were requested from representatives in all 31 EU and EEA countries...
December 20, 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Gabriela Paz-Bailey, Christopher J Gregory
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Mark F Cotton, Helena Rabie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Simon Tiberi, Giovanni Battista Migliori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Michael S Niederman, Jeff Alder, Matteo Bassetti, Francis Boateng, Bin Cao, Kevin Corkery, Rajiv Dhand, Keith S Kaye, Robert Lawatscheck, Patrick McLeroth, David P Nicolau, Chen Wang, G Christopher Wood, Richard G Wunderink, Jean Chastre
BACKGROUND: Treatment of ventilated pneumonia is often unsuccessful, even when patients are treated according to established guidelines. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of the combination drug device Amikacin Inhale as an adjunctive therapy to intravenous standard-of-care antibiotics for pneumonia caused by Gram-negative pathogens in intubated and mechanically ventilated patients. METHODS: INHALE was a prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study comprising two trials (INHALE 1 and INHALE 2) done in 153 hospital intensive-care units in 25 countries...
December 19, 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Jonathon R Campbell, Anete Trajman, Victoria J Cook, James C Johnston, Menonli Adjobimey, Rovina Ruslami, Lisa Eisenbeis, Federica Fregonese, Chantal Valiquette, Andrea Benedetti, Dick Menzies
BACKGROUND: An important problem limiting treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is the occurrence of adverse events with isoniazid. We combined populations from phase 2 and phase 3 open-label, randomised controlled trials, to establish risk factors for adverse events during latent tuberculosis infection treatment. METHODS: We did a post-hoc safety analysis based on data from two open-label, randomised controlled trials done in health-care facilities in Australia, Benin, Brazil, Canada, Ghana, Guinea, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, and South Korea...
December 19, 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Fatima Mir, Faisal Mahmood, Amna Rehana Siddiqui, Shehla Baqi, Syed Hani Abidi, Abdul Momin Kazi, Apsara Ali Nathwani, Amerta Ladhani, Farah Naz Qamar, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Sikander Ali Memon, Jamila Soomro, Saqib Ali Shaikh, Victoria Simms, Palwasha Khan, Rashida Abbas Ferrand
BACKGROUND: In April 2019, an HIV screening camp for all ages was established in response to a report of an unusually large number of paediatric HIV diagnoses in Larkana, Pakistan. We aimed to understand the clinical profile of the children who registered for HIV care. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we review the outbreak response from the government, academia, and UN agencies in Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan. We report age-stratified and sex-stratified HIV prevalence estimated among individuals screened...
December 19, 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Daniel A Sweeney, Andre C Kalil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Nikita Arumalla, Gerald Coakley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 17, 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Simon G F Abram, Abtin Alvand, Andrew Judge, David J Beard, Andrew J Price
BACKGROUND: The short-term and long-term consequences of septic arthritis are uncertain. We aimed to determine risk of mortality and adverse joint outcomes following septic arthritis of the native knee. METHODS: We did a retrospective cohort study in patients who received arthroscopic knee washout for septic arthritis in England between April 1, 1997, and March 31, 2017, using data in the national Hospital Episode Statistics database. Patients with previous knee surgery to the same knee were excluded...
December 17, 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Kevin Messacar, Emily Spence-Davizon, Christina Osborne, Craig Press, Teri L Schreiner, Jan Martin, Ricka Messer, John Maloney, Alexis Burakoff, Meghan Barnes, Shannon Rogers, Adriana S Lopez, Janell Routh, Susan I Gerber, M Steven Oberste, W Allan Nix, Mark J Abzug, Kenneth L Tyler, Rachel Herlihy, Samuel R Dominguez
BACKGROUND: In May, 2018, Children's Hospital Colorado noted an outbreak of enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) neurological disease. We aimed to characterise the clinical features of EV-A71 neurological disease during this outbreak. METHODS: In this retrospective observational cohort study, children (younger than 18 years) who presented to Children's Hospital Colorado (Aurora, CO, USA) between March 1 and November 30, 2018, with neurological disease (defined by non-mutually exclusive criteria, including meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid myelitis, and seizures) and enterovirus detected from any biological specimen were eligible for study inclusion...
December 16, 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
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