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Gayatri Athalye-Jape, Sanjay Patole
Mortality, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), late onset sepsis (LOS) and feeding intolerance are significant issues for very preterm (< 32 weeks) and extremely preterm (< 28 weeks) infants. The complications of ≥ Stage II NEC [e.g. Resection of the gangrenous gut, survival with intestinal failure, recurrent infections, prolonged hospital stay, and long-term neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI)] impose a significant health burden. LOS also carries significant burden including long-term NDI due to adverse effects of inflammation on the preterm brain during the critical phase of development...
January 13, 2019: Microbial Biotechnology
Jeanna Auriemma, Nicholas M Potisek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Pediatrics in Review
Laura Forero Zapata, Mariann Pappagallo
An infant had an apneic episode at birth and received positive-pressure ventilation in the delivery room during neonatal resuscitation. The infant had a birth weight of 2400 g (5th percentile) and was born to a 39-year-old woman who had presented for a planned cesarean section at 37 weeks 2 days of..
August 16, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Yogen Singh, Anup C Katheria, Farha Vora
Shock in newborn infants has unique etiopathologic origins that require careful assessment to direct specific interventions. Early diagnosis is key to successful management. Unlike adults and pediatric patients, shock in newborn infants is often recognized in the uncompensated phase by the presence of hypotension, which may be too late. The routine methods of evaluation used in the adult and pediatric population are often invasive and less feasible. We aim to discuss the pathophysiology in shock in newborn infants, including the transitional changes at birth and unique features that contribute to the challenges in early identification...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Susumu Itoh, Hitoshi Okada, Toru Kuboi, Takashi Kusaka
Approximately 60 years ago in England, phototherapy for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia was used in clinical practice. It was introduced in Japan approximately 50 years ago. At that time, the mechanism underlying the serum bilirubin concentration decrease by phototherapy was still unknown. The mechanism was identified by chemists, biochemists, and pediatricians. Clarification started with the report that unconjugated bilirubin was excreted into bile after photoirradiation in Gunn rats. After confirmation of the molecular structure of bilirubin on X-ray analysis, the mechanism for bile excretion of unconjugated bilirubin was verified based on geometric configurational photoisomers in the Gunn rat...
September 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Praveen Kumar Chandrasekharan, Munmun Rawat, Rajeshwari Madappa, David H Rothstein, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
Congenital Diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a condition characterized by a defect in the diaphragm leading to protrusion of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity interfering with normal development of the lungs. The defect may range from a small aperture in the posterior muscle rim to complete absence of diaphragm. The pathophysiology of CDH is a combination of lung hypoplasia and immaturity associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN) and cardiac dysfunction. Prenatal assessment of lung to head ratio (LHR) and position of the liver by ultrasound are used to diagnose and predict outcomes...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Kathryn Martinello, Anthony R Hart, Sufin Yap, Subhabrata Mitra, Nicola J Robertson
This review discusses an approach to determining the cause of neonatal encephalopathy, as well as current evidence on resuscitation and subsequent management of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Encephalopathy in neonates can be due to varied aetiologies in addition to hypoxic-ischaemia. A combination of careful history, examination and the judicious use of investigations can help determine the cause. Over the last 7 years, infants with moderate to severe HIE have benefited from the introduction of routine therapeutic hypothermia; the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome is 7 (95% CI 5 to 10)...
July 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
V Riljak, J Kraf, A Daryanani, P Jiruška, J Otáhal
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is one of the leading pediatric neurological conditions causing long-term disabilities and socio-economical burdens. Nearly 20-50 % of asphyxiated newborns with HIE die within the newborn period and another third will develop severe health consequences and permanent handicaps. HIE is the result of severe systemic oxygen deprivation and reduced cerebral blood flow, commonly occurring in full-term infants. Hypoxic-ischemic changes trigger several molecular and cellular processes leading to cell death and inflammation...
December 22, 2016: Physiological Research
Dan Stewart, William Benitz
Postpartum infections remain a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. A high percentage of these infections may stem from bacterial colonization of the umbilicus, because cord care practices vary in reflection of cultural traditions within communities and disparities in health care practices globally. After birth, the devitalized umbilical cord often proves to be an ideal substrate for bacterial growth and also provides direct access to the bloodstream of the neonate. Bacterial colonization of the cord not infrequently leads to omphalitis and associated thrombophlebitis, cellulitis, or necrotizing fasciitis...
September 2016: Pediatrics
Man-Yau Ho, Yu-Hsuan Yen
Without appropriate nutritional support, preterm infants fail to grow after birth and have malnutrition. The main reason for delayed feeding is fear of immaturity of gastrointestinal function. The principles of nutritional practice should be as follows: (1) minimal early initiation of enteral feeding with breast milk (0.5-1 mL/h) to start on Day 1 if possible and gradual increase as tolerated; (2) early aggressive parenteral nutrition as soon as possible; (3) provision of lipids at rates that will meet the additional energy needs of about 2-3 g/kg/d; and (4) attempt to increase enteral feeding rather than parenteral nutrition...
October 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Caroline E Ahearne, Geraldine B Boylan, Deirdre M Murray
Interruption of blood flow and gas exchange to the fetus in the perinatal period, known as perinatal asphyxia, can, if significant, trigger a cascade of neuronal injury, leading on to neonatal encephalopathy (NE) and resultant long-term damage. While the majority of infants who are exposed to perinatal hypoxia-ischaemia will recover quickly and go on to have a completely normal survival, a proportion will suffer from an evolving clinical encephalopathy termed hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) or NE if the diagnosis is unclear...
February 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
D H Adamkin, R Polin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Shubhangi Mhaske, Monal B Yuwanati, Ashok Mhaske, Raju Ragavendra, Kavitha Kamath, Swati Saawarn
The occurrence of natal and neonatal teeth is an uncommon anomaly, which for centuries has been associated with diverse superstitions among different ethnic groups. Natal teeth are more frequent than neonatal teeth, with the ratio being approximately 3 : 1. It must be considered that natal and neonatal teeth are conditions of fundamental importance not only for a dental surgeon but also for a paediatrician since their presence may lead to numerous complications. Early detection and treatment of these teeth are recommended because they may induce deformity or mutilation of tongue, dehydration, inadequate nutrients intake by the infant, and growth retardation, the pattern and time of eruption of teeth and its morphology...
August 18, 2013: ISRN Pediatrics
Kari A Simonsen, Ann L Anderson-Berry, Shirley F Delair, H Dele Davies
Early-onset sepsis remains a common and serious problem for neonates, especially preterm infants. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the most common etiologic agent, while Escherichia coli is the most common cause of mortality. Current efforts toward maternal intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis have significantly reduced the rates of GBS disease but have been associated with increased rates of Gram-negative infections, especially among very-low-birth-weight infants. The diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is based on a combination of clinical presentation; the use of nonspecific markers, including C-reactive protein and procalcitonin (where available); blood cultures; and the use of molecular methods, including PCR...
January 2014: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Francesca Cortese, Pietro Scicchitano, Michele Gesualdo, Antonella Filaninno, Elsa De Giorgi, Federico Schettini, Nicola Laforgia, Marco Matteo Ciccone
Neonatal sepsis still represents an important cause of mortality and morbidity among infants. According to the onset, we can distinguish "early onset sepsis" when microbiological cultures positive for external pathogens come from newborns during the first 7 days of life (maternal intrapartum transmission); "late onset sepsis" when microbiological cultures positive for external pathogens come from newborns after the first 7 days from delivery (postnatal acquisition). In this review we synthesize the incidence, risk factors, clinical manifestations, and methods of diagnosis and treatment of each type of neonatal infection, in order to better define such a pathological condition which is of great importance in common clinical practice...
August 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
David J Gallacher, Kylie Hart, Sailesh Kotecha
KEY POINTS: Respiratory distress is a common presenting feature among newborn infants.Prompt investigation to ascertain the underlying diagnosis and appropriate subsequent management is important to improve outcomes.Many of the underlying causes of respiratory distress in a newborn are unique to this age group.A chest radiograph is crucial to assist in diagnosis of an underlying cause. EDUCATIONAL AIMS: To inform readers of the common respiratory problems encountered in neonatology and the evidence-based management of these conditions...
March 2016: Breathe
Fu-Kuei Huang, Hsiu-Lin Chen, Peng-Hong Yang, Hung-Chih Lin
Though the incidence of neonatal infection in term and near-term infants is relatively low, incidence of infection in preterm very low birth weight infants is as high as 20-30% and may result in neurodevelopmental impairment or mortality. Pediatricians should be familiar with recognition and emergency management of life-threatening neonatal infections, such as congenital pneumonia, early onset sepsis, late onset sepsis, bacterial and fungal meningitis, disseminated neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV), and HSV meningoencephalitis...
June 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Eric C Eichenwald
Apnea of prematurity is one of the most common diagnoses in the NICU. Despite the frequency of apnea of prematurity, it is unknown whether recurrent apnea, bradycardia, and hypoxemia in preterm infants are harmful. Research into the development of respiratory control in immature animals and preterm infants has facilitated our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of apnea of prematurity. However, the lack of consistent definitions, monitoring practices, and consensus about clinical significance leads to significant variation in practice...
January 2016: Pediatrics
Raffaella Colombatti, Laura Sainati, Daniele Trevisanuto
Neonatal anemia is a frequent occurrence in neonatal intensive care units. Red blood cell transfusion criteria in case of blood loss are clearly defined but optimal hemoglobin or hematocrit thresholds of transfusion for anemia due to decreased production or increased destruction are less evident. This review focuses on the causes of anemia in the newborn period and the most recent evidence-based treatment options, including transfusion and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.
February 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
(no author information available yet)
The prevention of pain in neonates should be the goal of all pediatricians and health care professionals who work with neonates, not only because it is ethical but also because repeated painful exposures have the potential for deleterious consequences. Neonates at greatest risk of neurodevelopmental impairment as a result of preterm birth (ie, the smallest and sickest) are also those most likely to be exposed to the greatest number of painful stimuli in the NICU. Although there are major gaps in knowledge regarding the most effective way to prevent and relieve pain in neonates, proven and safe therapies are currently underused for routine minor, yet painful procedures...
February 2016: Pediatrics
2017-01-26 19:59:58
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