[A clinical, cytogenetic and molecular study of 10 patients with the Prader-Willi syndrome]

A Barabash, M Robledo, R Sanz, M Renedo, C Ramos, C Ayuso, J Benítez
Medicina Clínica 1997 March 1, 108 (8): 304-6

BACKGROUND: The Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurogenetic disorder associated with abnormalities in the chromosomal region 15q11-13 of paternal origin. Most cases (65-85%) have a deletion involving the paternally derived chromosome and the remainder (20-25%) have a maternal uniparental disomy. Some patients have a defect in the imprinting process. We report the results of molecular, cytogenetic and clinical studies on 10 PWS patients.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: 18 suspected patients were classified as PWS typical or not typical as they fulfilled or not the clinical criteria for PWS. Cytogenic studies-high resolution chromosome banding analyses (HRGTG) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) -and molecular chromosome genetic analyses--microsatellite markers and Southern blotting--were carried out from peripheral blood lymphocytes.

RESULTS: PWS was confirmed in 10 probands. 8 fulfilled the clinical criteria for PWS and showed cytogenetic and/or molecular abnormalities. In 2 patients without clinical or cytogenetic data, diagnosis was confirmed by molecular methods only. Cytogenetic and molecular findings describe a characteristic clinical picture of PWS.

CONCLUSIONS: Cytogenetic techniques (FISH and HRGTG) confirmed PWS diagnosis in 40% of cases, microsatellite studies in 70% of them and Southern blotting (the metilation test) in 100% cases. Southern blotting is the method of choice for rapid diagnostic testing of patients suspected of having PWS.

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