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Systematic Review
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Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and associated factors among adult type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, 2000-2022: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Systematic Reviews 2024 April 31
BACKGROUND: Thyroid dysfunction (TD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) frequently co-occur and have overlapping pathologies, and their risk increases with age. Thyroid dysfunction along with T2DM will worsen macro- and microvascular complications, morbidity, and mortality.

METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement guideline was followed. The databases used were Embase, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Google Scholar. The Joana Briggs Institute (JBI) scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies. The data was extracted by Microsoft Excel and analyzed through STATA version 14 software. The overall pooled prevalence of TD and its main components were estimated using the random-effects model. The consistency of studies was assessed by I2 test statistics. Pooled meta-logistic regression was used to present the pooled prevalence with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Besides, subgroup and sensitivity analyses were employed.

RESULT: Thirty-eight studies were included. The pooled prevalence of TD was 20.24% (95% CI: 17.85, 22.64). The pooled prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism, hypothyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, and hyperthyroidism was found to be 11.87% (95% CI: 6.90, 16.84), 7.75% (95% CI: 5.71, 9.79), 2.49% (95% CI: 0.73, 4.25), and 2.51% (95% CI: 1.89, 3.13), respectively. Subgroup analysis based on continent revealed a higher prevalence of TD in Asia and Africa. Factors like being female, HbA1c ≥ 7%, DM duration > 5 years, family history of TD, central obesity, smoking, the presence of retinopathy, and neuropathy were found associated with TD.

CONCLUSION: The current systematic review and meta-analysis showed that the TD's pooled prevalence was relatively higher than the general population. Therefore, regular screening of TD should be done for T2DM patients.

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