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Improved Prediction of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Status by Combined Radiomics of Primary Nonsmall-Cell Lung Cancer and Distant Metastasis.

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate radiomics based on primary nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and distant metastases to predict epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status.

METHODS: A total of 290 patients (mean age, 58.21 ± 9.28) diagnosed with brain (BM, n = 150) or spinal bone metastasis (SM, n = 140) from primary NSCLC were enrolled as a primary cohort. An external validation cohort, consisting of 69 patients (mean age, 59.87 ± 7.23; BM, n = 36; SM, n = 33), was enrolled from another center. Thoracic computed tomography-based features were extracted from the primary tumor and peritumoral area and selected using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression to build a radiomic signature (RS-primary). Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging-based features were calculated and selected from the BM and SM to build RS-BM and RS-SM, respectively. The RS-BM-Com and RS-SM-Com were developed by integrating the most important features from the primary tumor, BM, and SM.

RESULTS: Six computed tomography-based features showed high association with EGFR mutation status: 3 from intratumoral and 3 from peritumoral areas. By combination of features from primary tumor and metastases, the developed RS-BM-Com and RS-SM-Com performed well with areas under curve in the training (RS-BM-Com vs RS-BM, 0.936 vs 0.885, P = 0.177; RS-SM-Com vs RS-SM, 0.929 vs 0.843, P = 0.003), internal validation (RS-BM-Com vs RS-BM, 0.920 vs 0.858, P = 0.492; RS-SM-Com vs RS-SM, 0.896 vs 0.859, P = 0.379), and external validation (RS-BM-Com vs RS-BM, 0.882 vs 0.805, P = 0.263; RS-SM-Com vs RS-SM, 0.865 vs 0.816, P = 0.312) cohorts.

CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the accuracy of detecting EGFR mutations significantly enhanced in the presence of metastases in primary NSCLC. The established radiomic signatures from this approach may be useful as new predictors for patients with distant metastases.

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