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Surgical outcomes and predictive value for major complications of robot-assisted radical cystectomy of real-world data in a single institution in Japan.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the surgical outcome of robot-assisted radical cystectomy and predictive factors for major complications in real-world clinical practice at a single institution in Japan.

METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 208 consecutive patients undergoing robot-assisted radical cystectomy at our institution between 2019 and 2023. Patient and disease characteristics, intraoperative details, and perioperative outcomes were reviewed. Postoperative complications were defined as minor complications (Clavien-Dindo grades 1-2) or major complications (grades 3-5). Predictors of complications were examined using multivariable logistic analysis.

RESULTS: Overall, 147 men and 61 women, median age 70 years (interquartile range, 62-77), were included in this study. Median operative time and estimated blood loss were 8.4 h and 185 mL, respectively; 11 patients (5%) received intraoperative blood transfusions. For urinary diversions, ileal conduit, neobladder, and cutaneous ureterostomy were performed in 153 (74%), 49 (24%), and 6 (3%) patients, respectively. Urinary diversions were primarily performed with extracorporeal urinary diversion. In total, 140 complications occurred in 111 patients (53%) within 30 days. Of these patients, 31 major complications occurred in 28 patients, and one perioperative death (0.5%) with a postoperative cardiovascular event. Multivariable analysis showed only prolonged operative time (odds ratio: 4.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.82-10.35, p < 0.01) was the independent risk factor for major complications.

CONCLUSIONS: This study reports surgical outcomes at our single institution. Prolonged operative time was a significant prognostic factor for major complications. As far as we know, this study reports the largest number of robot-assisted radical cystectomy cases at a single center in Japan.

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