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Monitoring of Perioperative Microcirculation Dysfunction by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Neurological Deterioration and Prognosis of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: An Observational, Longitudinal Cohort Study.

Neurology and Therapy 2024 Februrary 18
INTRODUCTION: No evidence has established a direct causal relationship between early microcirculation disturbance after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and neurological function prognosis, which is the key pathophysiological mechanism of early brain injury (EBI) in patients with aSAH.

METHODS: A total of 252 patients with aSAH were enrolled in the Neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit of Southwest Hospital between January 2020 and December 2022 and divided into the no neurological deterioration, early neurological deterioration, and delayed neurological deterioration groups. Indicators of microcirculation disorders in EBI included regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2 ) measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), brain oxygen monitoring, and other clinical parameters for evaluating neurological function and determining the prognosis of patients with aSAH.

RESULTS: Our data suggest that the rSO2 is generally lower in patients who develop neurological deterioration than in those who do not and that there is at least one time point in the population of patients who develop neurological deterioration where left and right cerebral hemisphere differences can be significantly monitored by NIRS. An unordered multiple-classification logistic regression model was constructed, and the results revealed that multiple factors were effective predictors of early neurological deterioration: reoperation, history of brain surgery, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade 4-5, Fisher grade 3-4, SAFIRE grade 3-5, abnormal serum sodium and potassium levels, and reduced rSO2 during the perioperative period. However, for delayed neurological deterioration in patients with aSAH, only a history of brain surgery and perioperative RBC count were predictive indicators.

CONCLUSIONS: The rSO2 concentration in patients with neurological deterioration is generally lower than that in patients without neurological deterioration, and at least one time point in the population with neurological deterioration can be significantly monitored via NIRS. However, further studies are needed to determine the role of microcirculation and other predictive factors in the neurocritical management of EBI after aSAH, as these factors can reduce the incidence of adverse outcomes and mortality during hospitalization.

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