RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Available and emerging therapies for bona fide advanced systemic mastocytosis and primary eosinophilic neoplasms.
The historically poor prognosis of patients with advanced systemic mastocytosis (AdvSM) and primary eosinophilic neoplasms has shifted to increasingly favorable outcomes with the discovery of druggable targets. The multikinase/KIT inhibitor midostaurin and the highly selective KIT D816V inhibitor avapritinib can elicit marked improvements in measures of mast cell (MC) burden as well as reversion of MC-mediated organ damage (C-findings) and disease symptoms. With avapritinib, the achievement of molecular remission of KIT D816V and improved survival compared with historical therapy suggests a potential to affect disease natural history. BLU-263 and bezuclastinib are KIT D816V inhibitors currently being tested in trials of AdvSM. In the new World Health Organization and International Consensus Classifications, the category of "myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and tyrosine kinase (TK) gene fusions" is inclusive of rearrangements involving PDGFRA, PDGFRB, FGFR1, JAK2, FLT3, and ETV6::ABL1. While the successful outcomes with imatinib in FIP1L1::PDGFRA-positive cases and PDGFRB-rearranged neoplasms have become the "poster children" of these disorders, the responses of the other TK-driven neoplasms to small-molecule inhibitors are more variable. The selective FGFR inhibitor pemigatinib, approved in August 2022, is a promising therapy in aggressive FGFR1-driven diseases and highlights the role of such agents in bridging patients to allogeneic transplantation. This review summarizes the data for these approved and investigational agents and discusses open questions and future priorities regarding the management of these rare diseases.
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