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Phase 3 Study of Subcutaneous Versus Intravenous Ravulizumab in Eculizumab-Experienced Adult Patients with PNH: Primary Analysis and 1-Year Follow-Up.

Advances in Therapy 2023 January
INTRODUCTION: This study compared the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the ravulizumab on-body delivery system for subcutaneous (SUBQ) administration with intravenous (IV) ravulizumab in eculizumab-experienced patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH).

METHODS: Patients with PNH received SUBQ ravulizumab (n = 90) or IV ravulizumab (n = 46) during the 10-week randomized treatment period; all patients then received SUBQ ravulizumab during an extension period (< 172 weeks; data cutoff 1 year). Primary endpoint was day 71 serum ravulizumab trough concentration (Ctrough ). Secondary endpoints were ravulizumab Ctrough and free C5 over time. Efficacy endpoints included change in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), breakthrough hemolysis (BTH), transfusion avoidance, stabilized hemoglobin, and Treatment Administration Satisfaction Questionnaire (TASQ) score. Safety, including adverse events (AEs) and adverse device effects (ADEs), was assessed until data cutoff.

RESULTS: SUBQ ravulizumab demonstrated PK non-inferiority with IV ravulizumab (day 71 SUBQ/IV geometric least-squares means ratio 1.257 [90% confidence interval 1.160-1.361; p < 0.0001]). Through 1 year of SUBQ administration, ravulizumab Ctrough values were > 175 μg/mL (PK threshold) and free C5 < 0.5 μg/mL (PD threshold). Efficacy endpoints remained stable: mean (standard deviation, SD) LDH percentage change was 0.9% (20.5%); BTH events, 5/128 patients (3.9%); 83.6% achieved transfusion avoidance; 79.7% achieved stabilized hemoglobin. Total TASQ score showed improved satisfaction with SUBQ ravulizumab compared with IV eculizumab (mean [SD] change at SUBQ day 351, - 69.3 [80.1]). The most common AEs during SUBQ treatment (excluding ADEs) were headache (14.1%), COVID-19 (14.1%), and pyrexia (10.9%); the most common ADE unrelated to a device product issue was injection site reaction (4.7%). Although many patients had ≥ 1 device issue-related ADE, full SUBQ dose administration was achieved in 99.9% of attempts.

CONCLUSIONS: SUBQ ravulizumab provides an additional treatment choice for patients with PNH. Patients may switch to SUBQ ravulizumab from IV eculizumab or ravulizumab without loss of efficacy.


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