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[Femoral head reduction osteotomy to improve femoroacetabular containment in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease].

OBJECTIVE: Restoration of hip congruence and containment through central femoral head resection/reduction via an extended surgical hip dislocation, while maintaining/respecting the femoral head blood flow. Simultaneous or subsequent reorientation of the acetabulum by triple TPO (Pediatric Triple Osteotomy) or PAO (Peri-Acetabular Osteotomy) may be necessary.

INDICATIONS: Surgical hip dislocation with femoral head reduction can be performed at any age in cases with hinge abduction and Stulberg class IV and V deformity. Procedure indicated for patients with active or healed disease. After the resection, a viable residual femoral head must remain, i.e. at least 50% of the expanded femoral head, which is best planned using "comparative" 3D reconstruction.

CONTRAINDICATIONS: Completely destroyed cartilage or femoral head.

SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: The same surgical procedure as described for classic surgical hip dislocation is followed. Preparation of retinacular flaps. With detailed knowledge of the vascular supply and precise execution of this technique, blood supply to the femoral head will be preserved; once safely surgically dislocated, the femoral head and neck can be split and the necrotic part of the femoral head removed. Reformation of the femoral head as spherical as possible is achieved by screw fixation of the femoral neck to align the two articular parts of the femoral head. Distalization and fixation of the great trochanter helps to restore offset (functional femoral neck length). Depending on the congruence and stability of the femoral head in the acetabulum, a primary TPO or PAO may also be necessary.

POSTOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT: Intraoperative stability must be achieved to ensure functional posttreatment without a hip spica cast. Walking with crutches with toe contact only is advised. Active rotation is not allowed. Active and passive flexion up to 90° allowed. These measures have to be observed for 8-10 weeks. Then, active physiotherapy rehabilitation may commence, depending on healing, as assessed clinically and radiologically.

RESULTS: Our published follow-up examinations (currently 21 years) show consistently good results with a technically correct operation and correct indication as well as adequate follow-up treatment. No necrosis of the reduced femoral head has been observed. All split femoral heads and femoral necks are primarily healed.

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