JOURNAL ARTICLE

DIFFUSE IDIOPATHIC SKELETAL HYPEROSTOSIS IN CAPTIVE GORILLAS ( GORILLA SPP.): APPEARANCES AND DIAGNOSIS

Brian Livingstone, Andrew C Kitchener, Gordon Hull, Tobias Schwarz, Sanjay Vijayanathan, Matthew J Allen, Matyas Liptovszky, Roberto Portela Miguez
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians 2020, 51 (3): 578-590
33480533
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a disorder of unknown cause, in which new bone forms in soft tissues attached to the skeleton. Originally described in humans, in whom it is quite common, it is usually asymptomatic. New bone may completely bridge across joints, especially in the spine. However, it can be difficult to distinguish from diseases such as spondyloarthritis and spondylosis. With safer and increased use of radiography in diagnosis, the unfamiliar skeletal changes of asymptomatic DISH may now be coincidentally revealed during investigation of other disorders and result in misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment. There have been case reports of its occurrence in great apes, but this is the first study to illustrate its appearances in a series of 11 skeletons of western and eastern lowland gorillas ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei graueri ) from zoos in Europe and the United States. The study combines a review of available clinical and postmortem records with examination of the skeletons and radiologic investigation, such as computed tomography (CT). The results indicate that the disorder is probably common in older (>30 yr) captive gorillas, but that it is asymptomatic. It was not symptomatic during life in any of these animals. Several cases had unexpected features, such as extensive involvement of the thorax and extra-articular sacroiliac and tibiofibular joint fusions that are not typical in humans. By illustrating these skeletons, the study should aid differentiation of DISH from spondylosis ( syn spondylosis deformans) and spondyloarhritis. It illustrates those features that are atypical of human DISH. CT scanning is valuable in such cases for examining diagnostically important areas such as sacroiliac joints. Increased awareness of DISH should help with understanding its cause, both in gorillas and humans.

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