Orbital Roof Fractures: An Evidence-Based Approach

Jordyn P Lucas, Meredith Allen, Brandon K Nguyen, Peter F Svider, Adam J Folbe, Michael Carron
Facial plastic surgery & aesthetic medicine 2020 August 10
Importance: There is controversy surrounding the management of orbital roof fractures. Guidelines with regard to when to operate and type of reconstruction are lacking. Categorizing these data will help clinicians make informed decisions about the management of orbital roof fractures and avoid preventable complications. Objective: To perform a systematic review evaluating underlying causes, associated complications, and management of orbital roof fractures including reconstructive options in the general population of children and adults. Evidence Review: A systematic review using the PubMed, EmBase, Cochrane, and MEDLINE databases identified relevant studies for inclusion. Studies were included from 1987 to 2017. Demographics, symptoms, management, reconstruction, and outcomes were reported following preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Inclusion criteria included articles discussing management of traumatic orbital roof fractures across all ages. Included studies were assessed for level of evidence. Findings: Forty-seven studies encompassing 526 patients met inclusion criteria. There were 28 case reports, 15 retrospective case series and 4 retrospective cohort studies. The most common etiologies were motor vehicle accidents (39.5%), falls (30.3%), and assault (11.8%). Periorbital ecchymosis, exophthalmos, and dystopia were the most common initial symptoms. In total, 60.0% of patients underwent surgical repair and 40% of patients were managed conservatively. The most common surgical approach was bicoronal (94.8%), followed by a superolateral orbital rim approach and transpalpebral (5.1%). A variety of grafting materials were utilized, including titanium miniplates (46.2%), bone graft (37.7%), porous polyethylene (2.8%), and silastic implants (2.8%). Overall patients undergoing surgery were adults with clinical symptoms including exophthalmos, diplopia, and gaze restriction as well as patients with dura exposure. Most patients undergoing surgery were those with concomitant fractures. The most common fractures among the surgical patients were frontal bone (32.2%), ethmoid (25.2%), and zygomaticomaxillary complex/zygoma (12.2%). Conclusions and Relevance: Management of orbital roof fractures varies based on individual clinical features including the presence of exophthalmos, gaze restriction, and concomitant injuries such as dural tears. Surgically, bicoronal approaches were performed most commonly along with reconstruction utilizing titanium miniplates. Conservative management was more common among the pediatric population. This systematic review demonstrates both conservative and surgical measures can lead to positive outcomes in appropriately selected patients.

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