[Subtrochanteric femur fractures-epidemiology, surgical procedures, influence of time to surgery and comorbidities on complications : A risk-adjusted regression analysis of routine data from 2124 cases]

C M Müller-Mai, D Deitert, S Hörter, U S Schulze Raestrup, C Zwillich, R Smektala
Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen 2021, 92 (3): 248-263

BACKGROUND: There are approximately 12,000 subtrochanteric femur fractures in Germany per year with a rising trend but studies about the epidemiology and the surgical outcome are rare. Furthermore, there are no guidelines from expert societies and there is no adequate quality assurance.

OBJECTIVE: Presentation of the epidemiology and the current treatment situation with respect to the patient collective, comorbidities, time to surgery and surgical procedures used as well as the identification of modifiable risk factors with respect to complications.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of routine data based on an established data model in 2124 cases. The descriptive statistics contain data on basic patient characteristics, such as age, comorbidities, surgical procedure, time to surgery and mortality. In the analytical statistics the impact of risk factors (surgical procedure, time to surgery etc.) on the endpoints mortality, complications and decubitus was investigated by logistical regression analyses.

RESULTS: Of the patients 55% were operated on within the first 24h. Intramedullary osteosynthesis (89%) is the most frequently used surgical method (prostheses 2%, extramedullary procedures 5%). Within the first postoperative year 37% of the patients received a higher level of care, where the care was moved from outpatient to inpatient treatment. The mortality in the first postoperative year was 26%, while early complications were observed in 6%. A delay in surgical treatment was associated with an increased mortality and intrinsic factors, which were difficult to influence. Intramedullary osteosynthesis had the lowest mortality and revision rates.

CONCLUSION: Concerning the epidemiological data, the patient collectives of subtrochanteric fractures and femoral neck or pertrochanteric fractures were very similar. Major delays in the time to surgery of subtrochanteric fractures can be associated with increased complication rates and mortality. Therefore, programs to prevent older patients from falling have a high priority.

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