Bag-Valve Mask versus Endotracheal Intubation in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest on Return of Spontaneous Circulation: A National Database Study

Chaiyaporn Yuksen, Phatthranit Phattharapornjaroen, Woranee Kreethep, Chonnakarn Suwanmano, Chestsadakon Jenpanitpong, Rawin Nonnongku, Yuwares Sittichanbuncha, Kittisak Sawanyawisuth
Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM 2020, 12: 43-46

Background: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is the main issue for pre-hospital emergency care. There are several airway managements during the out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) such as endotracheal intubation (ETI) or alternative airway device: bag-valve mask (BVM). Data comparing both methods showed inconclusive results on survival and limited results on CPR outcome. This study aimed to add additional results on comparing the ETI and BVM in cardiac arrest outside hospitals; focused on the CPR outcome.

Methods: This study was a retrospective, analytical study. The inclusion criteria were adult patients (age of 18 years or over) with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, who received emergency life support, and received either BVM or ETI. Data were retrieved from the Information Technology of Emergency Medical Service. The outcome was a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC).

Results: During the study period, there were 1070 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who met the study criteria. Of those, 800 patients (74.77%) received BVM, while the other 270 patients (25.23%) received ETI. There were five significant factors between both groups including mean distance to scene, proportions of response time less than 8 mins, defibrillation, intravenous fluid administration, and adrenaline administration. There was no significant difference on the outcome: ROSC. The BVM group had slightly higher rate of ROSC than the ETI group (19.63% vs 15.56%; p value 0.148).

Conclusion: The BVM and ETI had comparable ROSC rate for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims. However, the study population of the BVM group had less severe conditions and received faster treatment than the ETI group.

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