JOURNAL ARTICLE

Wilderness Medical Society Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Frostbite: 2019 Update

Scott E McIntosh, Luanne Freer, Colin K Grissom, Paul S Auerbach, George W Rodway, Amalia Cochran, Gordon G Giesbrecht, Marion McDevitt, Christopher H Imray, Eric L Johnson, Prativa Pandey, Jennifer Dow, Peter H Hackett
Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2019, 30 (4S): S19-S32
31326282
The Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop a set of evidence-based guidelines for prevention and treatment of frostbite. We present a review of pertinent pathophysiology. We then discuss primary and secondary prevention measures and therapeutic management. Recommendations are made regarding each treatment and its role in management. These recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks or burdens for each modality according to methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians. This is an updated version of the guidelines published in 2014.

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