Analysis of association between periodontal disease and thickness of maxillary sinus mucosa using cone beam computed tomography - A retrospective study

Vrushali N Lathiya, Abhay P Kolte, Rajashri A Kolte, Dhawal R Mody
Saudi Dental Journal 2019, 31 (2): 228-235

Purpose: The aim of this study was to measure the thickness of the mucous membrane lining the maxillary sinus and to correlate this thickening of the Schneiderian membrane with the presence or absence of periodontal bone loss of adjacent teeth, by using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Methods: 255 CBCT images were analyzed of which 140 images were selected for the study. Based upon the absence of radiographic periodontal bone loss and presence of 50% or more bone loss, these CBCT images were respectively divided into two groups viz. Group I (Healthy) and Group II (Periodontal Bone Loss Group), each group consisting of 70 images each. The thickening of the mucous membrane lining of the floor of maxillary sinus was measured at four points on the CBCT. These points were the anterior most point of the thickened mucosa, the posterior most point of the thickened mucosa, at the midpoint (MP) (point midway between the anterior most and the posterior most point) and the point of maximum thickness of the sinus mucosa.

Results: The age adjusted mean thickness for Group II was significantly greater than that of Group I (p < 0.001) at all the four points. There was a positive association between presence of periodontal bone loss and thickening of Schneiderian membrane at the floor of the sinus. There was a weak positive association between age and mucosal thickness. Of all the four points measured, the maximum correlation between age and thickness was obtained at MP ( r  = 0.171), which was statistically significant (p = 0.044).

Conclusion: The present study concluded that there is a positive association between presence of periodontal bone loss and thickening of mucosa of floor of maxillary sinus and also exhibited a weak positive relation between age and increased mucosal thickening of floor of maxillary sinus.

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