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Impact of Body Mass Index on Outcomes after Mesenteric Revascularization for Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia.

BACKGROUND: Historically, patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) are underweight with a low body mass index (BMI). However, with the recent obesity epidemic many of these patients now are overweight with a high BMI. We evaluated the impact of BMI on outcomes after mesenteric revascularization for CMI.

METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients undergoing open or endovascular mesenteric revascularization for CMI between January 2000 and June 2015 was performed. Demographics, comorbidities, BMI, Society for Vascular Surgery-combined comorbidity score, treatment modality, postoperative complications, reintervention, and all-cause mortality were analyzed. The primary end point for the study was all-cause mortality at 5 years. Patients were stratified using the World Health Organization BMI criteria. Univariate, Kaplan-Meier survival, and multivariate analyses were performed.

RESULTS: In the study period, 104 unique patients underwent mesenteric revascularization for CMI, for 77 of whom BMI information was available. Of these 77, 30 patients were treated by endovascular revascularization, and 47 patients were treated by open revascularization. Overall, 27 (35.1%) were overweight or obese with a BMI ≥25. Median follow-up time was 41 months. High BMI patients were less likely to have weight loss at the time of surgery (P = 0.004). Stratified by BMI <25 versus BMI ≥25, 5-year survival for patients treated by open revascularization was 90% versus 50% (P = 0.02); survival for patients treated by endovascular revascularization was 27% vs. 53% (P = 0.37). Multivariate survival analysis identified active smoking, hypertensive chronic kidney disease, open repair with the use of venous conduit instead of prosthetic conduit (P < 0.001), and history of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (P = 0.002), as independent predictors of increased all-cause mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: BMI needs to be considered in assessing and counseling patients on outcomes of mesenteric revascularization for CMI, as a BMI over 25 is associated with poorer long-term survival after open revascularization. Smoking, hypertensive chronic kidney disease, PAD, and open repair with the use of venous conduit are independent predictors of long-term mortality after mesenteric revascularization independent of BMI.

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