Multidisciplinary Resection of Deeply Infiltrative Endometriosis

Gaby N Moawad, Paul Tyan, Elias D Abi Khalil, David Samuel, Vincent Obias
Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology 2018, 25 (3): 389-390

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe a multidisciplinary approach for the resection of deeply infiltrative endometriosis using the robotic platform.

DESIGN: A technical video showing a step-by-step approach for the resection of deeply infiltrative endometriosis (Canadian Task Force classification level III). Institutional review board approval was not required for this study.

SETTING: There is considerable involvement of the bowel and bladder with deeply infiltrative endometriosis [1-3]. The need for operative procedures involving multiple organs while performing a complete resection is common. The benefits of minimally invasive surgery for a gynecologic pathology have been documented in numerous studies. Patients had fewer medical and surgical complications postoperatively, better cosmesis, and better quality of life [4-6]. We believe that deeply infiltrative endometriosis does not preclude patients from having a minimally invasive resection procedure. In this video, we describe how the robotic platform was used for a seamless transition between surgical specialties including gynecology, colorectal, and urology to ensure complete resection of endometriosis lesions involving multiple organs.

PATIENT: A 47-year-old woman with a 4-year history of severe pelvic pain, dysuria, dyspareunia, dyschezia, and dysmenorrhea failing multiple medical therapies presented to our clinic to discuss surgical options. After thorough counseling, the decision was made to proceed with definitive surgical management. Postoperatively, the patient was admitted for 2 days of postoperative inpatient care. After meeting all immediate postoperative milestones, she was discharged with an indwelling Foley catheter and instructed to follow up in the clinic with all 3 surgical specialties. At the 1-week interval, she was seen by the urology team; her indwelling catheter was removed after a cystoscopy was performed documenting adequate healing. Two weeks postoperatively, the patient was seen by the gynecology and colorectal teams and was noted to be healing adequately from the procedure. Her six-week visit was also unremarkable. She continued to follow up with the gynecology team for her yearly well-woman examinations and has been symptom free for 2 years after the surgery. She takes norethindrone daily to minimize recurrence.

INTERVENTIONS: Preoperative pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed bladder endometriosis and extensive rectovaginal endometriosis. We describe the multidisciplinary approach used for surgery and the procedures performed by each specialty. The urology team performed a cystoscopy preoperatively to assess for full-thickness erosions and the location of those lesions in that event. The urology team also reviewed the magnetic resonance images with the radiology team, and the endometriosis lesions were suspected to be close to the bladder trigone, keeping in mind that this finding could be overestimated given that the bladder was deflated at the time the imaging was obtained. Accordingly, at the time of surgery, the decision was made to proceed with cystoscopy and the placement of ureteral stents as a prophylactic measure. An intentional cystotomy and resection of the bladder section involved with endometriosis were performed followed by watertight closure. The trigone area of the bladder was not involved, and ureteral reimplantation was not needed in this case. The gynecology team operated second and performed an extensive dissection of the retroperitoneal space with the development of the pararectal and paravesical spaces. They also ligated the uterine artery at its origin followed by dissection of the uterovesical space, effectively reflecting the bladder off of the lower uterine segment. At this point, they proceeded with a total hysterectomy, and the specimen was removed from the pelvis through the vaginal cuff. Preoperatively, the colorectal surgeon ordered a colonoscopy to determine if full-thickness erosions were present and reviewed the magnetic resonance images with the radiology team. Based on the MRI and colonoscopy, all patients are counseled and consented for the possibility of a low anterior resection and loop ileostomy to protect the anastomosis. Based on the understanding that colorectal and gynecologic surgeries have a different approach when dissecting the pararectal space at our institution, a discussion between the 2 teams is initiated at the multidisciplinary session for surgery planning. In the case we present, the colorectal surgeon opted for the removal of the uterus before his dissection was initiated given that he dissects this space presacrally and not retroperitoneally like the gynecology counterpart. He would also benefit from the extra space for dissection with the uterus out of the pelvis. The colorectal part of the case was initiated by mobilization of the rectum and dissecting the obliterated rectovaginal space. The presacral space was then opened followed by mobilization of the rectosigmoid from its attachment. The case was concluded with full transection and reanastomosis of the rectum section involved with endometriosis. The specimen was also removed from the pelvis through the vaginal cuff.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Complete resection of deeply infiltrative endometriosis spanning beyond the scope of 1 surgical specialty. No immediate intraoperative, perioperative, or long-term complications from surgery. Complete resolution of endometriosis symptoms.

CONCLUSION: We encourage collaborative care for planning and performing comprehensive and safe resection of deeply infiltrative endometriosis.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"