Left ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral outperforms ejection fraction and Doppler-derived cardiac output for predicting outcomes in a select advanced heart failure cohort

Christina Tan, David Rubenson, Ajay Srivastava, Rajeev Mohan, Michael R Smith, Kristen Billick, Samuel Bardarian, J Thomas Heywood
Cardiovascular Ultrasound 2017 July 3, 15 (1): 18

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral (LVOT VTI) is a measure of cardiac systolic function and cardiac output. Heart failure patients with low cardiac output are known to have poor cardiovascular outcomes. Thus, extremely low LVOT VTI may predict heart failure patients at highest risk for mortality.

METHODS: Patients with heart failure and extremely low LVOT VTI were identified from a single-center database. Baseline characteristics and heart failure related clinical outcomes (death, LVAD) were obtained at 12 months. Correlation between clinical endpoints and the following variables were analyzed: ejection fraction (EF), pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), NYHA class, renal function, Doppler cardiac output (CO), and LVOT VTI.

RESULTS: Study cohort consisted of 100 patients. At the 12-month follow up period, 30 events (28 deaths, 2 LVADs) were identified. Occurrence of death and LVAD implantation was statistically associated with a lower LVOT VTI (p = 0.039) but not EF (p = 0.169) or CO (p = 0.217). In multivariate analysis, LVOT VTI (p = 0.003) remained statistically significant, other significant variables were age (p = 0.033) and PASP (p = 0.022). Survival analysis by LVOT VTI tertile demonstrated an unadjusted hazard ratio of 4.755 (CI 1.576-14.348, p = 0.006) for combined LVAD and mortality at one year.

CONCLUSIONS: Extremely low LVOT VTI strongly predicts adverse outcomes and identifies patients who may benefit most from advanced heart failure therapies.

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