Complications and Outcomes After Gynecomastia Surgery: Analysis of 204 Pediatric and 1583 Adult Cases from a National Multi-center Database

Dmitry Zavlin, Kevin T Jubbal, Jeffrey D Friedman, Anthony Echo
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 2017, 41 (4): 761-767

BACKGROUND: Gynecomastia is a common disease that is prevalent across all age groups of boys and men. Although benign in nature, it can lead to psychological and social distress, prompting affected patients to seek medical attention. Management strategies include observation and drug therapy, yet surgical procedures remain the hallmark of treatment. The goal of this study was to analyze patient demographics, outcomes, and complication rates of gynecomastia surgery in a large multi-institutional cohort.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program adult and pediatric databases to produce two cohorts that underwent gynecomastia surgical repair. The two populations were compared for comorbidities, perioperative details, and complication rates. Multivariate analyses helped detect risk factors associated with adverse events.

RESULTS: A total of 204 pediatric and 1583 adult male patients were identified in our analysis. Mean ages were 15.8 and 39.6 years, respectively. A BMI of 28.2 in the latter cohort revealed an overweight adult population. Preoperative comorbidities (0.0-4.9% in children, 0.0-6.4% in adults) and American Society of Anesthesiologists scores (ASA 1 + 2: 98.5 and 82.7%) symbolized a healthy population. Procedures were subsequently performed mostly as outpatient (84.3 and 93.9%) and with short hospitalization durations (0.27 and 0.06 days). Our results demonstrated low surgical (3.9 and 1.9%) and medical (0.0 and 0.3%) complications within the standardized 30-day postoperative period. Children and adolescents, however, required double mean operative times compared to adults (111.3 vs 56.7 min).

CONCLUSION: Operative gynecomastia treatment remains a safe treatment modality across all age groups. Patients with known preoperative medical or surgical comorbidities necessitate more extensive perioperative assessment and monitoring.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors .

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.