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Bone mineral metabolism and bone mineral density in alcohol related and idiopathic chronic pancreatitis

Anusree Prabhakaran, Deepak K Bhasin, Surinder S Rana, Sanjay K Bhadada, Anil Bhansali, Chalapathi Rao, Rajesh Gupta, Niranjan Khandelwal
Tropical Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation 2014, 35 (2): 107-12
25470873

BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the bone mineral metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP).

METHODS: 103 patients with CP (all males: mean age 38.6 ± 20.64 yrs) and 40 age matched control males (mean age: 36.7 ± 20.70 yrs) were prospectively studied. Serum levels of 25 (OH) Vitamin D3, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using adual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanner.

RESULTS: Seventy two (70%) patients had alcohol related chronic pancreatitis (ACP), 30 (29.1%) patients had idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (ICP) and one patient had post-traumatic chronic pancreatitis. Fifty nine (59.8%) patients had chronic calcific pancreatitis (CCP) and 39 (37.8%) patients were diabetic. Steatorrhea was noted in 21 (20.4%) patients. On comparison with controls, patients with chronic pancreatitis had significantly lower 25 (OH) Vitamin D3 levels (p = 0.01). On evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine, 46% patients were osteopenic and 12% patients were osteoporotic. On evaluation of BMD of femur, 30.1% patients were osteoporotic and 39.8% patients were osteopenic. No significant difference was found in the frequency of metabolic osteopathy between alcoholic and idiopathic groups (p = 0.108), calcific and non-calcific groups (p = 0.410), diabetic and non-diabetic groups (p = 0.126). smokers and non-smokers (p = 0.198), and patients with and without history of steatorrhea (p = 0.265) and indifferent severity groups ofupancreatitis (p = 0.910) CONCLUSIONS: Majority of patients with both ACP and ICP had low BMD and similar frequency of bone changes between various groups suggests that systemic inflammation may play an important role in its pathogenesis. Further detailed metabolic studies are necssary to define the pathogenic mechanism of metabolic osteopathy associated with chronic pancreatitis.

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