Clinical impact of aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: insights into the degree and acuteness of presentation

Miguel Jerez-Valero, Marina Urena, John G Webb, Corrado Tamburino, Antonio J Munoz-Garcia, Asim Cheema, Antonio E Dager, Vicenç Serra, Ignacio J Amat-Santos, Marco Barbanti, Sebastiano Immè, Juan H Alonso Briales, Hatim Al Lawati, Luis Miguel Benitez, Angela Maria Cucalon, Bruno Garcia del Blanco, Ana Revilla, Eric Dumont, Henrique Barbosa Ribeiro, Luis Nombela-Franco, Sébastien Bergeron, Philippe Pibarot, Josep Rodés-Cabau
JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions 2014, 7 (9): 1022-32

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the degree of residual aortic regurgitation (AR) and acuteness of presentation of AR after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) on outcomes.

BACKGROUND: The degree of residual AR after TAVR leading to excess mortality remains controversial, and little evidence exists on the impact of the acuteness of presentation of AR.

METHODS: A total of 1,735 patients undergoing TAVR with balloon-expandable or self-expanding valves were included. The presence and degree of AR were evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography; acute AR was defined as an increase in AR severity of ≥1 degree compared with pre-procedural echocardiography.

RESULTS: Residual AR was classified as mild in 761 patients (43.9%) and moderate to severe in 247 patients (14.2%). The presence of moderate to severe AR was an independent predictor of mortality at a mean follow-up of 21 ± 17 months compared with none to trace (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32 to 2.48; p < 0.001) and mild AR (adjusted HR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.27 to 2.24; p < 0.001) groups. There was no increased risk in patients with mild AR compared with those with none to trace AR (p = 0.393). In patients with moderate to severe AR, acute AR was observed in 161 patients (65%) and chronic AR in 86 patients (35%). Acute moderate to severe AR was independently associated with increased risk of mortality compared with none/trace/mild AR (adjusted HR: 2.37, 95% CI: 1.53 to 3.66; p < 0.001) and chronic moderate to severe AR (adjusted HR: 2.24, 95% CI: 1.17 to 4.30; p = 0.015) [corrected]. No differences in survival rate were observed between patients with chronic moderate to severe and none/trace/mild AR (p > 0.50).

CONCLUSIONS: AR occurred very frequently after TAVR, but an increased risk of mortality at ∼2-year follow-up was observed only in patients with acute moderate to severe AR.

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