Targetable signaling pathway mutations are associated with malignant phenotype in IDH-mutant gliomas

Hiroaki Wakimoto, Shota Tanaka, William T Curry, Franziska Loebel, Dan Zhao, Kensuke Tateishi, Juxiang Chen, Lindsay K Klofas, Nina Lelic, James C Kim, Dora Dias-Santagata, Leif W Ellisen, Darrell R Borger, Sarah-Maria Fendt, Matthew G Vander Heiden, Tracy T Batchelor, A John Iafrate, Daniel P Cahill, Andrew S Chi
Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2014 June 1, 20 (11): 2898-909

PURPOSE: Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutations occur in low-grade and high-grade gliomas. We sought to identify the genetic basis of malignant phenotype heterogeneity in IDH-mutant gliomas.

METHODS: We prospectively implanted tumor specimens from 20 consecutive IDH1-mutant glioma resections into mouse brains and genotyped all resection specimens using a CLIA-certified molecular panel. Gliomas with cancer driver mutations were tested for sensitivity to targeted inhibitors in vitro. Associations between genomic alterations and outcomes were analyzed in patients.

RESULTS: By 10 months, 8 of 20 IDH1-mutant gliomas developed intracerebral xenografts. All xenografts maintained mutant IDH1 and high levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate on serial transplantation. All xenograft-producing gliomas harbored "lineage-defining" mutations in CIC (oligodendroglioma) or TP53 (astrocytoma), and 6 of 8 additionally had activating mutations in PIK3CA or amplification of PDGFRA, MET, or N-MYC. Only IDH1 and CIC/TP53 mutations were detected in non-xenograft-forming gliomas (P = 0.0007). Targeted inhibition of the additional alterations decreased proliferation in vitro. Moreover, we detected alterations in known cancer driver genes in 13.4% of IDH-mutant glioma patients, including PIK3CA, KRAS, AKT, or PTEN mutation or PDGFRA, MET, or N-MYC amplification. IDH/CIC mutant tumors were associated with PIK3CA/KRAS mutations whereas IDH/TP53 tumors correlated with PDGFRA/MET amplification. Presence of driver alterations at progression was associated with shorter subsequent progression-free survival (median 9.0 vs. 36.1 months; P = 0.0011).

CONCLUSION: A subset of IDH-mutant gliomas with mutations in driver oncogenes has a more malignant phenotype in patients. Identification of these alterations may provide an opportunity for use of targeted therapies in these patients. Clin Cancer Res; 20(11); 2898-909. ©2014 AACR.

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