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[Neurocognitive disorders in DSM-5: a critical review].

BACKGROUND: The APA published the DSM-5 in May, 2013. When compared to dsm-iv, the latest edition incorporates many changes, some relating to neurocognitive disorders.

AIM: To review critically the new DSM-5 alterations and adjustments relating to neurocognitive disorders.

METHOD: We compared the relevant chapters in DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 and we searched the literature for articles involving discussions about cognitive disorders in DSM-5.

RESULTS: With regard to differential diagnosis of neurocognitive disorders, DSM-5 has more in common with current clinical practice than does the DSM-IV. DSM-5 names ten etiological subtypes for which the diagnostic criteria are based on recent scientific research. However, some researchers and clinicians have reservations about using the term 'major neurocognitive disorder' instead of 'dementia', and are reluctant to make a distinction between 'mild' and 'major' cognitive disorders.

CONCLUSION: The alterations and adjustments that appear in DSM-5 in relation to neurocognitive disorders may well mean progress for clinicians and researchers but they will inevitably require greater investment.

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