Metabolism and mass balance of SGLT2 inhibitor tofogliflozin following oral administration to humans

Manfred Zell, Christophe Husser, Olaf Kuhlmann, Dietmar Schwab, Takahide Uchimura, Tomonori Kemei, Kosuke Kawashima, Mizuki Yamane, Axel Pähler
Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems 2014, 44 (4): 369-78
1. Tofogliflozin is a novel and selective SGLT2 inhibitor increasing glucosuria by inhibition of glucose re-absorption in the kidney for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. 2. In this study, the metabolism and the mass balance of tofogliflozin was evaluated following administration of a single oral dose of 20 mg [(14)C]-tofogliflozin to six healthy subjects. 3. Tofogliflozin underwent mainly oxidative metabolism in the ethylphenyl moiety, but also minor glucuronide conjugates of metabolites and the parent drug were formed. 4. In plasma, the parent drug and its major phenyl acetic acid metabolite M1 accounted for 42% and 52% of the total drug-related material, respectively. The hydroxyl metabolites and their successor ketone metabolite showed an exposure well below 5%, along with an acyl glucuronide of M1. 5. Tofogliflozin was completely absorbed with subsequent predominate metabolic clearance and a small contribution of direct urinary elimination. Approximately, 76% of the dose was excreted in urine and 20% in faeces within 72 h. The high absorption of tofogliflozin was exemplified by the small trace of parent drug in faeces. The phenyl acetic acid metabolite M1 was the major component excreted in urine and faeces accounting for more than half of the dose. Tofogliflozin demonstrated a high metabolic turnover.

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