[Detection of prostate cancer by real-time MR/ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy: 3T MRI and state of the art sonography]

T Durmus, C Stephan, M Grigoryev, G Diederichs, M Saleh, T Slowinski, A Maxeiner, A Thomas, T Fischer
RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin 2013, 185 (5): 428-33

PURPOSE: Multiparametric MRI of the prostate is a noninvasive diagnostic method with high sensitivity and specificity for prostate cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether prostate cancer detection rates of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy may be improved by an image fusion of state-of-the-art ultrasound (CEUS, elastography) and MR (T2w, DWI) imaging.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: 32 consecutive patients with a history of elevated PSA levels and at least one negative TRUS-guided biopsy with clinical indication for a systematic re-biopsy underwent multiparametric 3 T MRI without endorectal coil. MR data (T2w) were uploaded to a modern sonography system and image fusion was performed in real-time mode during biopsy. B-mode, Doppler, elastography and CEUS imaging were applied to characterize suspicious lesions detected by MRI. Targeted biopsies were performed in MR/US fusion mode followed by a systematic standard TRUS-guided biopsy. Detection rates for both methods were calculated and compared using the Chi²-test.

RESULTS: Patient age was not significantly different in patients with and without histologically confirmed prostate cancer (65.2 ± 8.0 and 64.1 ± 7.3 age [p = 0.93]). The PSA value was significantly higher in patients with prostate cancer (15.5 ± 9.3 ng/ml) compared to patients without cancer (PSA 10.4 ± 9.6 ng/ml; p = 0.02). The proportion of histologically confirmed cancers in the study group (n = 32) of the MR/US fusion biopsy (11/12; 34.4 %) was significantly higher (p = 0.01) in comparison to the TRUS systematic biopsy (6/12; 18.8 %).

CONCLUSION: Real-time MR/US image fusion may enhance cancer detection rates of TRUS-guided biopsies and should therefore be studied in further larger studies.

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