COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE

Low revision rate after total hip arthroplasty in patients with pediatric hip diseases

Lars B Engesæter, Ingvild Ø Engesæter, Anne Marie Fenstad, Leif I Havelin, Johan Kärrholm, Göran Garellick, Alma B Pedersen, Søren Overgaard
Acta Orthopaedica 2012, 83 (5): 436-41
23043269

BACKGROUND: The results of primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs) after pediatric hip diseases such as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), or Perthes' disease have been reported to be inferior to the results after primary osteoarthritis of the hip (OA).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared the survival of primary THAs performed during the period 1995-2009 due to previous DDH, SCFE, Perthes' disease, or primary OA, using merged individual-based data from the Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish arthroplasty registers, called the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA). Cox multiple regression, with adjustment for age, sex, and type of fixation of the prosthesis was used to calculate the survival of the prostheses and the relative revision risks.

RESULTS: 370,630 primary THAs were reported to these national registers for 1995-2009. Of these, 14,403 THAs (3.9%) were operated due to pediatric hip diseases (3.1% for Denmark, 8.8% for Norway, and 1.9% for Sweden) and 288,435 THAs (77.8%) were operated due to OA. Unadjusted 10-year Kaplan-Meier survival of THAs after pediatric hip diseases (94.7% survival) was inferior to that after OA (96.6% survival). Consequently, an increased risk of revision for hips with a previous pediatric hip disease was seen (risk ratio (RR) 1.4, 95% CI: 1.3-1.5). However, after adjustment for differences in sex and age of the patients, and in fixation of the prostheses, no difference in survival was found (93.6% after pediatric hip diseases and 93.8% after OA) (RR 1.0, CI: 1.0-1.1). Nevertheless, during the first 6 postoperative months more revisions were reported for THAs secondary to pediatric hip diseases (RR 1.2, CI: 1.0-1.5), mainly due to there being more revisions for dislocations (RR 1.8, CI: 1.4-2.3). Comparison between the different diagnosis groups showed that the overall risk of revision after DDH was higher than after OA (RR 1.1, CI: 1.0-1.2), whereas the combined group Perthes' disease/SCFE did not have a significantly different risk of revision to that of OA (RR 0.9, CI: 0.7-1.0), but had a lower risk than after DDH (RR 0.8, CI: 0.7-1.0).

INTERPRETATION: After adjustment for differences in age, sex, and type of fixation of the prosthesis, no difference in risk of revision was found for primary THAs performed due to pediatric hip diseases and those performed due to primary OA.

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