Complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: avoidance and management

Martin L Freeman
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America 2012, 22 (3): 567-86
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is now almost exclusively a therapeutic modality for pancreatic as well as biliary disorders. ERCP alone or with associated pancreatic and biliary therapy can cause a spectrum of mild and severe complications, including pancreatitis, hemorrhage, perforation, and cardiopulmonary events. Understanding of complications of ERCP has progressed substantially in the past decade, including widespread adoption of standardized consensus-based definitions of complications, large multicenter multivariate studies that have permitted clearer understanding of patient and technique-related risk factors for complications, and introduction of new technical approaches to minimize risks of ERCP.

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