REVIEW
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

[Psychogenic non epileptic seizures: a review].

L'Encéphale 2011 April
OBJECTIVE: This paper summarizes the recent literature on the phenomena of psychogenic non epileptic seizures (PNES). DEFINITION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY: PNES are, as altered movement, sensation or experience, similar to epilepsy, but caused by a psychological process. Although in the ICD-10, PNES belong to the group of dissociative disorders, they are classified as somatoform disorders in the DSM-IV. That represents a challenging diagnosis: the mean latency between manifestations and diagnosis remains as long as 7 years. It has been estimated that between 10 and 30% of patients referred to epilepsy centers have paroxysmal events that despite looking like epileptic episodes are in fact non-epileptic. Many pseudo epileptic seizures have received the wrong diagnosis of epilepsy being treated with anticonvulsants. The prevalence of epilepsy in PNES patients is higher than in the general population and epilepsy may be a risk factor for PNES. It has been considered that 65 to 80% of PNES patients are young females but a new old men subgroup has been recently described. POSITIVE DIAGNOSIS AND PSYCHIATRIC COMORBIDITIES: Even if clinical characteristics of seizures were defined as important in the diagnosis algorithm, this point of view could be inadequate because of its lack of sensitivity. Because neuron-specific enolase, prolactin and creatine kinase are not reliable and able to validate the diagnosis, video electroencephalography monitoring (with or without provocative techniques) is currently the gold standard for the differential diagnosis of ES, and PNES patients with pseudoseizures have high rates of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, somatoform symptoms, dissociative disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder. We found evidence for correlations between childhood trauma, history of childhood abuse, PTSD, and PNES diagnoses. PNES could also be hypothesized of a dissociative phenomena generated by childhood trauma.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: Some authors report that PNES can be associated with a physical brain disorder playing a role in their development: head injury may contribute to the pathogenesis of PNES. New-onset psychogenic seizures after resective epilepsy surgery or other intracranial neurosurgery have been described. Recent studies found psychogenic seizure disorders associated with brain pathology in the right hemisphere, non specific interictal electroencephalography abnormalities, magnetic resonance imaging changes and neuropsychological deficits. However, complex partial seizures of frontal origin might present similar characteristics with PNES and could be confused with the latter.

PROGNOSIS AND TREATMENT: There is actually no clear agreement as the best treatment plan for PNES patients. The PNES diagnosis has to be clearly communicated to the patient. Nevertheless, even after a correct diagnosis is made a high proportion of PNES patients continue to have seizures, serious disability and bad self-reported quality of life. Furthermore, seizure remission cannot be considered a comprehensive measure of medical or psychosocial outcome. Nearly half of the patients who become seizure free remain unproductive and many of these patients continue to have symptoms of psychopathology including other somatoform, depressive, and anxiety disorders. Even if psychiatric comorbidities have to be treated by a psychiatrist? who could also suggest a psychotherapy, in all cases the importance of a neurologist continuing to follow post-diagnosis PNES patients is essential.

CONCLUSIONS: PNES is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge that is costly to patients and to society at large. Further studies are needed to understand this dissociative psychiatric disorder and to propose therapeutic guidelines.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app