JOURNAL ARTICLE

Persistent coronary no flow after wire insertion is an early and readily available mortality risk factor despite successful mechanical intervention in acute myocardial infarction: a pooled analysis from the STRATEGY (Single High-Dose Bolus Tirofiban and Sirolimus-Eluting Stent Versus Abciximab and Bare-Metal Stent in Acute Myocardial Infarction) and MULTISTRATEGY (Multicenter Evaluation of Single High-Dose Bolus Tirofiban Versus Abciximab With Sirolimus-Eluting Stent or Bare-Metal Stent in Acute Myocardial Infarction Study) trials

Marco Valgimigli, Gianluca Campo, Patrizia Malagutti, Maurizio Anselmi, Leonardo Bolognese, Flavio Ribichini, Giacomo Boccuzzi, Nicoletta de Cesare, Alfredo E Rodriguez, Filippo Russo, Raul Moreno, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Carlo Penzo, José F Díaz Fernández, Giovanni Parrinello, Roberto Ferrari
JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions 2011, 4 (1): 51-62
21251629

OBJECTIVES: These studies sought to investigate the impact on mortality of coronary flow after passage of the wire through the culprit vessel in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing mechanical reperfusion.

BACKGROUND: Reduced spontaneous coronary flow before percutaneous coronary intervention influences mortality in patients with STEMI. Response to vessel wiring in patients with an occluded coronary artery before intervention might further discriminate outcomes irrespective of pre- and post-intervention coronary flow.

METHODS: Data from the STRATEGY (Single High-Dose Bolus Tirofiban and Sirolimus-Eluting Stent Versus Abciximab and Bare-Metal Stent in Acute Myocardial Infarction) and MULTISTRATEGY (Multicenter Evaluation of Single High-Dose Bolus Tirofiban Versus Abciximab With Sirolimus-Eluting Stent or Bare-Metal Stent in Acute Myocardial Infarction Study) trials were pooled: of 919 index procedures, 902 films (98%) were technically adequate for core laboratory TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) flow determination.

RESULTS: TIMI flow grade 0 was present before percutaneous coronary intervention in 59% of infarct vessels, TIMI flow grade 1 to 2 was found in 21%, whereas the remainder of infarct arteries presented with TIMI flow grade 3. In 49% of patients who showed persistent TIMI flow grade 0 after wire insertion (AWI), mortality was higher at 30 days (5.3%) and 1 year (9.4%) compared with patients in whom TIMI flow grade before percutaneous coronary intervention was either >0 (0.8%; p < 0.003 and 3.6%, p < 0.008) or improved from 0 AWI (1.5%, p < 0.04 and 3.6%, p < 0.02). After correcting for multiple imbalances, including baseline and final flow, persistent TIMI flow grade 0 AWI remained associated at 30 days to 2-fold (risk ratio [RR]: 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08 to 5.00; p = 0.038) and at 1 year to almost 3-fold increases of mortality (RR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3 to 5.6; p = 0.008).

CONCLUSIONS: STEMI patients displaying persistent no-flow AWI have a lower survival rate despite an apparently successful mechanical intervention. As an early marker for high residual mortality risk, persistent no-flow AWI may qualify STEMI patients for dedicated pharmacomechanical treatment strategies.

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