Rotigotine transdermal patch for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome

B Boroojerdi, H-M Wolff, M Braun, D K A Scheller
Drugs of Today 2010, 46 (7): 483-505
The nonergoline dopamine agonist rotigotine, is delivered transdermally using a silicone-based patch (Neupro(R); UCB Pharma GmbH), which promotes unidirectional drug flow from the transdermal system to the skin. Pharmacokinetic data show stable steady-state plasma concentrations over 24 h, maintained with once-daily patch administration. Stable plasma concentrations are reflected by stable concentrations in the brain, as has been shown in animal studies. This suggests a continuous stimulation of dopaminergic receptors, which may result in a reduction in or prevention of abnormal involuntary movements in Parkinson's disease (PD) after prolonged treatment. Clinical trials have demonstrated that rotigotine is efficacious as monotherapy for PD and restless legs syndrome (RLS), and open-label extension studies have shown its long-term efficacy. Furthermore, rotigotine can be used effectively in coadministration with levodopa, enabling a reduction of the levodopa treatment doses in PD. Transdermal application also yields favorable pharmacokinetics for rotigotine: rapid metabolism and lack of skin accumulation allow for good control of chronic administration or withdrawal by patch removal, and the transdermal application approach circumvents problems of gastrointestinal absorption and enables administration prior to, during or following surgery. In addition, no dose adaptation is required regarding gender or ethnicity, or for patients with impaired liver or kidney function or on hemodialysis. The safety profile of rotigotine transdermal patch is favorable; common side effects attributed to transdermal delivery or dopaminergic stimulation are generally mild to moderate in intensity. Importantly, augmentation of RLS is uncommon under long-term rotigotine treatment and dyskinesia in PD patients mostly developed only after levodopa initiation. Overall, rotigotine transdermal patch has demonstrated favorable clinical efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of PD and RLS.

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