Thoracolaparoscopy in the lateral position for esophageal cancer: the experience of a single institution with 112 consecutive patients

Shailesh P Puntambekar, Geetanjali A Agarwal, Saurabh N Joshi, Neeraj V Rayate, Ravindra M Sathe, Anjali M Patil
Surgical Endoscopy 2010, 24 (10): 2407-14

BACKGROUND: Esophagectomy has been performed using a thoracoabdominal, transhiatal, or transthoracic approach. All these methods have an acknowledged high intra- and postoperative morbidity. The principle of minimally invasive esophagectomy is to perform the operation the same as by the open approach but through a smaller incision, thus reducing the operative trauma without compromising the principles of the operation. The authors report their experience with thoracoscopic esophagectomy performed for 112 patients in left lateral position.

METHODS: Patients with resectable thoracic or gastroesophageal junction cancer and medically fit for a three-stage esophagectomy underwent thoracoscopic esophagectomy in left lateral position. The procedure was converted to open surgery for 2 (1.79%) of the 112 patients.

RESULTS: Since June 2005, 112 patients have undergone thoracoscopic esophagectomy in left lateral position. Of these patients, 80 patients had middle-third esophageal cancer. The pathology of 100 patients showed squamous cell carcinoma. The average thoracoscopic operating time was 85 min (range, 40-120 min). The average blood loss was 200 ml, and the average number of harvested mediastinal nodes was 20. Postoperative morbidity occurred for 16 patients, with 8 patients (7.27%) experiencing respiratory complications. Postoperative mortality was experienced by three patients. The median follow-up period was 18 months.

CONCLUSIONS: Thoracoscopic esophagectomy is surgically safe and oncologically adequate. Thoracoscopy for patients in the left lateral position does not require prolonged single-lung ventilation. The anatomic orientation in the left lateral position is the same as that for open surgery, reducing the learning curve for thoracic surgeons. The potential advantages and the morbidity trend of prone instead of left lateral thoracoscopic esophagectomy needs to be evaluated.

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