Periprocedural anticoagulation management of patients with venous thromboembolism

Robert D McBane, Waldemar E Wysokinski, Paul R Daniels, Scott C Litin, Joshua Slusser, David O Hodge, Nicole F Dowling, John A Heit
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2010, 30 (3): 442-8

OBJECTIVE: Patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) often require temporary warfarin interruption for an invasive procedure. The incidence of thromboembolism and bleeding related to periprocedural anticoagulation management of such patients is unknown.

METHODS AND RESULTS: In a protocol-driven, inception cohort design study, all VTE patients (n=775) referred for periprocedural anticoagulation management (1997-2007) were followed-up to estimate the 3-month cumulative incidence of thromboembolism and bleeding. Patients were stratified by thrombus acuity (acute, <30 days; subacute, 31-90 days; or chronic > or =91 days). Decisions to provide "bridging" low-molecular-weight heparin were based on estimated thromboembolism and bleeding risk. Low-molecular-weight heparin was more often administered in acute (87%) and subacute (81%) VTE compared to chronic VTE (59%; P<0.001). The 3-month cumulative incidence of thromboembolism (1.8%), major hemorrhage (1.8%), and mortality (1.7%) were low and did not differ by management strategy. Active cancer was the only independent predictor of thrombotic recurrence (HR, 4.86; 95% CI, 1.6-14.5; P=0.005), major hemorrhage (HR, 6.8; 95% CI, 2.1-21.7; P=0.001), and death (HR, 32.7; 95% CI, 4.3-251.2; P=0.0008).

CONCLUSIONS: Thromboembolism, bleeding, and death among VTE patients in whom anticoagulation is temporarily interrupted for an invasive procedure is low. Cancer patients require particular care given their propensity for both clotting and bleeding.

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